A painful collection of pus anywhere in the body caused by bacterial infection is called abscess. This collection of the pus is within the tissue. While pressing, you can feel the swelling. There are mainly two types of abscess: - Skin abscesses: They develop under the skin - Internal abscesses: They develop inside the body, in an organ or in the spaces between organs. Among the two, skin abscess is more common.
Acoustic schwannoma, also known as Vestibular schwannoma, is an uncommon cancerous tumour in the nerve connecting the inner ear with the brain. Acoustic schwannoma can lead to hearing loss and unbearable pain in the ear. It can be treated by surgical removal, radiation and regular monitoring by the neurosurgeon specialist.
Acquired brain injury may occur through the sudden onset of trauma, infection, lack of oxygen, strokes, and drug use episodes, or through prolonged alcohol or substance abuse, and tumours or degenerative neurological diseases. Two thirds of all people with this disease are over the age of 45. One third of those are over the age of 65, and the largest age group is between 40 and 49. The disease is higher in men than women. Acquired brain injury is any damage to the brain affecting a person physically, emotionally or behaviorally. It can happen at birth or later, from an illness or trauma, and can be called traumatic or nontraumatic, depending on the specific cause. There could be many possible causes of it including road accidents, assaults, falls and accidents at home or at work, stroke, brain tumor, haemorrhage, or viral infection such as meningitis.
Acute Interstitial Nephritis is a common kidney disorder that causes swelling or inflammation in the kidney. The disease is often linked with certain infections, drug therapies or it may be caused by some unknown agent. Acute Interstitial Nephritis, if not treated properly, may lead to complete loss of kidney function and can be life threatening.
The kidneys in your body filter your blood to remove the waste and water from blood, maintain your blood pressure, clean the blood and stimulate your bone marrows to produce blood. Therefore, the kidneys play a pivotal role in your day-to-day life. In acute kidney injury, your kidneys are damaged and cease to function properly. The complications that arise from acute kidney injury could range from minor loss of kidney function to complete failure of the kidneys. Although the name suggests that it is an injury due to a physical blow to the kidneys, it usually happens as a result of other serious illnesses. Acute kidney failure is often seen in older people with other complications. If diagnosed in the early stages, ythe doctor can treat you to avoid complications later on. In case of delayed diagnosis, the level of salts and chemicals in blood will be abnormally high, owing to malfunctioning kidneys. This will affect not only your kidneys, but also the functioning of other organs. In case of a complete kidney failure, it is necessary to provide external aid from a dialysis machine. If ignored, acute kidney injury leads to death.
Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a type of cancer in which the white blood cells, red blood cells, and platelets are attacked by bone marrow, which is a soft inner part of the bones. Without proper treatment, acute myeloid leukemia can be fatal, as it can spread very quickly to the blood and other parts of the body. Fever, fatigue, and bleeding are symptoms of the disease. Leukemia mainly targets the red and white blood cells and platelets. Acute myeloid leukemia is also known as acute myelocytic leukemia, acute myelogenous leukemia, acute granulocytic leukemia, and acute non-lymphocytic leukemia. The disease can affect liver, brain, spinal cord, lymph nodes, and testicles
Acute renal failure, also called acute kidney failure, happens when the patient's kidney loses its ability to filter waste. Waste starts accumulating in the kidneys which disturbs the chemical makeup of the patient's blood. The condition requires intensive care and treatment.
The adrenal glands, present on the top of each of the kidneys, are responsible for producing hormones that regulate the body’s metabolism, immune system, blood pressure and other important functions. Addison's disease is a type of adrenal disorder that occurs when the adrenal glands produce insufficient amounts of hormones (cortisol and aldosterone). This condition arises when the outer layer (cortex) of the adrenal glands gets damaged. The disease can pose a threat to the patient’s life.
Adenoid hypertrophy (or enlarged adenoids) is the unusual enlargement of the adenoid tonsil. The inflammation is common in children, especially between age group 2-6 years. The enlargement of tissue can be either due to bacterial infection or physiological reason. Adenoids are lymph tissues, similar to tonsils located in the upper air way between the nose and back of the throat. Adenoids are a part of the immune system and help the human body fight against infection. Adenoids enlarge due to infection but normalize after the infection subsides. However, if they remain enlarged even after the infection has gone, it may create problems. One of the possible treatments is removing them from the body.
There are many layers of tiny cells present in Macula. As we grow older, these tiny cells do not function adequately. If they do not, then there is high probability of deposits building up in the retina. Also, new blood vessels will grow inside the retina. The new vessels are delicate, and often bleed easily. Under these different conditions, your retina will not function properly. You will have a distorted or blurred vision, and sometimes, no vision. AMD has been identified as a common condition affecting people more than 50 years old. In a few cases, AMD develops slowly, affecting people at a later stage. In other cases, its progression can be evidently faster. When Macula or central portion of your eye deteriorates, the condition is called Macular degeneration. It is medically acknowledged as an incurable eye disease. Under macular degeneration, an individual will not be able to see properly. In severe cases, the person will suffer total vision loss. When macula is damaged, its functioning process of recording the images and sending a brain signal via the optic nerve suffers. The prevalence of age-related macular degeneration is increasing in Asia due to increase in life expectancy and rising incidents of diabetes among the younger population. As per the Centre for Eye Research Australia, prevalence of diabetic retinopathy among people ranged between 17% and 22% in India, and 43.1% in rural China in 2012. Age-related eye diseases such as glaucoma, cataract, diabetic retinopathy, and age-related macular degeneration, are the leading causes of visual impairment and blindness in North America. According to the American Academy of Ophthalmology, approximately 22 million Americans aged 40 and above were affected by cataract and 2.3 million Americans were affected by glaucoma in 2011.
Agnosia is a neurological disorder which affects a single information pathway in the brain. This leads to disability in recognition of faces, voices, objects or places. However, people suffering from Agnosia can still interact with the world normally. As mentioned, Agnosia affects a single pathway when brain suffers certain damage. This pathway connects primary sensory areas that store knowledge and information. These primary sensory regions are mainly visual or auditory cortices. Agnosia is caused by lesions on the parietal or occipital lobes of the brain. There are different types of Agnosia, including Environmental Agnosia, Finger Agnosia, Integrative Agnosia and Topographical disorientation. The primary sensory regions are mainly visual or auditory cortices. Lesions on the parietal or occipital lobes of the brain cause Agnosia. These lobes are vital in storing schematic information and language. Strokes, head traumas, encephalitis, carbon monoxide poisoning, dementia or anoxia generally creates the lesions.
Allergic Rhinitis, commonly known as hay fever, is one of the most common allergic conditions, and occurs when the nasal cavity is exposed to foreign particles such as pollens, dust, etc. The person starts sneezing or develops a running nose on breathing something which the immune system is allergic to. It is also referred to as seasonal allergies and is triggered by grass, pollen, dust and dirt in the air, and at times because of smoke and perfumes. Allergic rhinitis is not severe or fatal until accompanied by asthma or anaphylaxis, which can be significant. Drugs namely Antihistamines is used to treat this disease, and together with other drugs, they make up a fraction of over-the-counter drugs, and is prescribed every year.
Alport syndrome refers to a kind of heterogeneous and inherited disorders that are connected with the basement membranes of kidneys. The syndrome also affects the eyes and cochlea. Statistically, Alport syndrome affects one in every fifty thousand children. The distinguishing features are hematuria, proteinuria, hearing loss, end-stage kidney disease, glomerulonephritis, and problems with eyesight. The three classifications of Alport syndrome are: autosomal recessive Alport syndrome (ARAS), X-linked Alport syndrome (XLAS), and autosomal dominant Alport syndrome (ADAS)
Alzheimer’s is a neurological disorder that leads to a gradual loss of memory with time. Initially, it may only cause minor forgetfulness like forgetting names of people, familiar places, directions followed by anxiety and confusion. Alzheimer’s is the most common form of dementia and is mostly seen in aged people. The disease limits one’s social interaction and gets extremely severe in its final stages.
Amblyopia, also known as lazy eye, is an early childhood disorder of sight where the development of a child’s eyesight is not proper. The main focus of the brain is more on one eye than the other, resulting in decreased eyesight in other eye. The visual brain cells don’t mature generally if that eye is not stimulated in a proper way. If not diagnosed and treated at an early stage, this condition may cause lifelong vision loss. When it comes to research reports, this condition is estimated to affect 2-3% of all children.
The Anaplastic astrocytoma is defined as an uncommon cancerous tumour in the brain. These tumours form from several brain cells that are shaped as a star and are known as astrocytes. Cells like astrocytes develop the tissue that nears and shields other nerve cells that are present in the spinal cord and the brain. Together, all these cells are called glial cells, and the glial tissue is the tissue that they develop. Astrocytomas are one of the tumors that come from glial tissues and known as gliomas. Anaplastic astrocytoma is a kind of brain cancer. This disease comes in the class of high-grade gliomas that are persistently analogous gliomas and that take an improper clinical prediction. This disease also lacks vascular multiplication. The tumours that are caused in this disease, comprise of cells that are both normal and abnormal. The two kind of astrocytomas are; low-grade astrocytomas and high-grade astrocytomas. The astrocytomas that have a tendency to grow slow are low-grade astrocytomas, whereas the ones which have a tendency to grow at a high pace are high-grade astrocytomas.
It is a form of hair loss which is seen both in men and women. In men, this condition is called male-pattern baldness. Baldness in men is more well-defined in comparison to women. In men, starting above the temples, the hairline starts receding eventually, causing partial or complete baldness. While in women, it causes thinning of the hairs, and rarely leads to complete baldness. Androgenetic alopecia is caused due to prolonged effect of androgen on the hair follicles. In some cases it might also be due to other factors like seasonal changes, malnutrition, anemia, etc.
Angina is a term used for pain and discomfort felt in your chest. Also known as angina pectoris, angina is mainly caused by coronary heart disease. It is normally discussed as pressure, heaviness, pain or tightness in your chest. The blood supply to your heart is confined due to the narrowing of the arteries that supply blood and oxygen to your heart muscle. It is often brought on by an emotional upset, physical exertion or after a meal. This condition requires urgent medical attention as it may precede heart attack
Angioedema, also known as Quincke’s edema is described as the rapid swelling of dermis (skin), mucus, and submucosal tissues. It usually affects the deeper part of the skin, commonly around the face and lips. It is also defined as an acute mast of cell–mediated reaction caused by exposure to drug, venom, pollen, or animal allergens. The swelling (localized) is due to vascular and intravascular fluid leakages. The skin around the eyes, lips, genitals, hands, and feet swell and develops into red, itchy patches called hives or urticaria on the skin surface. Angioedema is classified into two main types: Acquired Angioedema (AAE) and Hereditary Angioedema (HAE). AAE is usually caused by allergy, and can be a side-effect of certain medicines like ACE inhibitors. HAE is caused by genetic mutations inherited from the family. These are distinguished by underlying genetic abnormalities.
An ankle sprain is an injury that occurs in your ankles, when you twist, turn or roll your ankles at awkward angles. The bones of ankles are held together using a ligament and the injury damages these ligaments. If you have a sprained ankle, your ankle ligaments would have been moved beyond their normal range of motion. Usually, sprained ankles are associated with tearing of ligaments in the outer edges of the ankle. For injuries of lesser magnitude, over-the-counter medication may be sufficient. But depending on the extent of damages caused, it is always suggested that you consult a doctor for a thorough medical examination. If a grave injury is left untreated, an ankle sprain might lead to chronic pain, chronic ankle instability or arthritis in the ankle.
Anxiety disorders differ from normal feelings of nervousness and involve excessive fear or anxiety. Anxiety in particular also refers to anticipation of a future concern and is associated more with muscle tension and avoidance behavior. These disorders can cause people to avoid situations and places that might cause them to feel trapped, helpless, panicking, embarrassed, and scared. Job performance, school work, and personal relationships can be affected. Anxiety disorder is the most common of mental disorders affecting majority of population. For people who have it, worry and fear are constant and overwhelming. It is a serious mental illness, but proper treatment helps most people lead normal and productive lives.
The aorta of the human heart is the largest blood vessel in the human body. It is the carrier of oxygenated blood from the heart to all parts of our body. The aorta originates at the left ventricle of the heart and runs down all the way to the abdomen where it branches into three arteries. It helps push thousands of liters of blood into our body, during our lifetime. It is tough and durable, but sometimes, the walls of the aorta can weaken and burst, causing serious bleeding inside the body. This is called aortic aneurysm. Aortic aneurysm is of two types: Thoracic aortic aneurysm (when the weak segment of the aorta is found inside the chest area); and Abdominal aortic aneurysm (when the weak segment of the aorta is inside the abdominal cavity). Abdominal aortic aneurysm is the most common variety of aneurysm.
Aortic stenosis or aortic valve stenosis occurs when the aortic valve of the heart narrows down. The narrowing of the aortic valve stops it from opening completely, which obstructs the flow of blood from the heart into the aorta and the rest of the body. Under this condition, the heart needs to exert harder in pumping blood to the body. This exertion from the heart’s end might cause the heart muscles to weaken, limiting the amount of blood being pumped. If somebody has a severe case of aortic valve, they will need a surgery to replace the damaged valve, or else it can lead to grave heart problems. Aortic stenosis majorly affects old people, as the valve that is defective usually hardens and narrows down.
Arrhythmia is a complication with the rate of your heartbeat. It arises with the improper working of electrical impulses that correlate with your heartbeats, affecting your heart to beat too slow, too fast or irregularly. When the rate is too slow, it is called bradycardia. When the rate is too fast, it is called tachycardia. Many factors such as smoking, congenital heart defects and stress are majorly responsible for this condition. There are many effective treatments available that focus to recondition a normal heart rhythm.
Veins carry deoxygenated blood towards the heart and the arteries carry oxygenated blood from the heart to the brain. Arteriovenous Malformations interrupt this process. Arteriovenous Malfunctions may occur in the spinal cord, brain or the brain stream. The only main cause of Arteriovenous Malfunctions is a genetic disorder passed on by parents.
Ascites refers to the accumulation of serous pale yellow and clear fluid in the peritoneal or abdominal cavity, located below the chest cavity and separated from it by a diaphragm. The fluid could be a result of many complications including liver diseases, kidney failure, cancers and congestive heart failure. The basic principle is similar to formation of edema, owing to imbalance of pressure between the external and internal systems.
Anxiety disorders differ from normal feelings of nervousness and involve excessive fear or anxiety. Anxiety in particular also refers to anticipation of a future concern and is associated more with muscle tension and avoidance behavior. These disorders can cause people to avoid situations and places that might cause them to feel trapped, helpless, panicking, embarrassed, and scared. Job performance, school work, and personal relationships can be affected. Anxiety disorder is the most common of mental disorders affecting majority of population. For people who have it, worry and fear are constant and overwhelming. It is a serious mental illness, but proper treatment helps most people lead normal and productive lives.
Ataxia is known as a lack of muscle coordination which may affect speech, eye movements, the ability to swallow, walking, picking up objects, and other voluntary movements. Ataxia often describe symptoms of impaired coordination which can be associated with infections, injuries, or degenerative changes in the central nervous system. It is also used to denote a group of specific degenerative diseases of the nervous system, called the hereditary ataxias.
Your arteries are the carriers of blood from your heart to all the parts of your body. Generally, these arteries are flexible and elastic. But in atherosclerosis, your arteries become thick and stiff. Atherosclerosis refers to the building up of fats, cholesterol, etc. inside your arteries, forming plaques. These plaques could restrict the flow of blood by narrowing your arteries. Sometimes, the plaques could also rupture and burst, forming a blood clot. Even though it is a cardiac problem, an artery in any part of your body could be affected by atherosclerosis. This condition is both treatable and preventable. Depending on which artery is blocked, there could be various complications arising from atherosclerosis - Coronary artery disease – When the plaques build up in the arteries near the heart, it leads to coronary artery disease. This may lead to chest pain and heart attack. Carotid artery disease – When the plaques are closer to your brain, it is called carotid artery disease. This may lead to a stroke. Peripheral artery disease – When the plaques are developed in the arteries of hands and legs, the condition is referred to as peripheral artery disease. This disease could lead to insensitivity to heat and cold and in extreme cases, gangrene. Aneurysms – An aneurysm is a bulge in the walls of the artery and can happen anywhere in the body. Chronic kidney disease – If the plaques grow in the arteries that are near the kidney, they decrease the quantity of oxygenated blood that reaches the kidneys. Over a period of time, this could lead to complications in your excretory system.
Atrial fibrillation is an irregular and rapid heart rate that can increase your risk of stroke, heart failure and other cardiac complications. When atrial fibrillation happens, the atria and the ventricles or the upper and the lower chambers of the heart would not be synchronized with one another. It could either come sometimes and repeat at intervals or not go at all. By itself, atrial fibrillation may not be very dangerous. However, it is a complex situation of the heart that screams for attention, because it can lead to blood clots and blood blockages.
The atrial septal defect (ASD) is a hole in the wall between the two upper chambers of the heart. There are two types of defect associated with the atrial septal - large atrial septal defect and small atrial septal defect. The large atrial septal defect may cause a major damage to the heart and lungs, whereas small atrial septal defect may occur incidentally, and may not be harmful or cause a problem. An individual whose atrial septal defect remains undetected for some time might face a shorter span of life because of a heart failure, or blood pressure that is unreasonably high and might even affect the working of arteries in the lungs. The atrial septal defect occurs in the interatrial septum, allowing pulmonary venous return from the left atrium to pass directly to the right atrium. It is a heart defect that is present from birth.
This is a type of congenital defect in center of the heart, due to a combination of several problems related to the heart. Often associated with Down syndrome, this is also referred to as ‘endocardial cushion effect’ or ‘atrioventricular septal defect’. A heart has two upper and two lower chambers. The upper chambers also called the right and left atria, receive incoming blood. The lower chambers, also called the right and left ventricles, pump blood out of your heart. The valves of the heart are the gates that control the quantity and direction of blood flow. Around 1.5 lakh infants in India are born with congenital heart disease (CHD) and approximately 78,000 of them die because of lack of awareness and improper medical treatment. If not treated at the right time, this could result not only in high blood pressure, but also in heart failure. Generally, it is recommended to operate, to close the hole and reconstruct the valves surgically. Atrioventricular canal defect occurs when there are problems with the valves of the heart that regulate blood flow and there is a hole between the heart’s chambers. Your heart would, therefore, pump in excess of blood to the lungs, causing over-working of the heart in turn. Due to overwork, the muscles in the heart tend to enlarge. There are two types of atrioventricular canal defect: If the defect is between the two upper chambers, it is called ‘partial atrioventricular canal defect’; If the defect is between all the four chambers, it is called ‘complete atrioventricular canal defect’.
Bartter syndrome is a rare inherited congenital defect that affects the kidneys. It is caused by genetic mutations. Bartter syndrome is of two types – Neonatal Bartter syndrome and classic Bartter syndrome. The syndrome means that your kidneys are unable to reabsorb Sodium and you lose it in urine. If you have Bartter syndrome, you are likely to have hypokalemia or low potassium level, alkalosis or increased pH value of blood and low blood pressure. Although another disorder called Gitelman syndrome is closely associated, it is milder than Bartter syndrome. The main effects of the syndrome are loss of Sodium in urine, rise in the level of aldosterone hormone, potassium wasting (excessive removal of Potassium from the body), hypokalemic alkalosis (abnormal acid balance in blood), and loss of Calcium in urine.
Due to public awareness of breast cancer, breast diseases are showing a rising trend worldwide. Benign or malignant lesions in the breast are the two most important terms to know for understanding breast injuries. The word ‘lesion’ comes from a Latin word 'Laesio' which means ‘attack or injury’. Lesions occur due to any disease or injury. They are an abnormal change in a tissue or organ. Benign breast lesions grow in non-cancerous areas where breast cells grow abnormally and rapidly. These cells form lumps but do not lead to cancer. They occur in a vast majority in the breast but are often neglected because they are not as dangerous as malignant lesions. These types of lesions do not spread but should be removed according to their size and location. They are also removed due to their abnormal appearance. Malignant lesions are cancerous in nature and are threatening for the health after a biopsy. They are characterized by progressive and uncontrolled growth. These type of lesions must be removed immediately by a surgery.
Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is a disease which occurs due to the enlargement of the prostate gland in men. If not treated properly, the disease can cause the urine to flow out of the bladder and result in bladder and urinary tract infections or kidney diseases.
Bile duct cancer, also known as cholangiocarcinoma, develops in the tubes called bile ducts that connect the liver and the gall bladder. The bile ducts are responsible for carrying the digestive liquid bile which is a waste product of the liver. The cancer usually causes narrowing of the bile ducts and disturbs their function. Bile duct cancer can be of the following types: Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma: It develops in the parts of the bile ducts inside the liver. Hilar cholangiocarcinoma: It develops in the bile ducts that are situated right outside of the liver. Distal cholangiocarcinoma: It develops in the part of the bile duct that is close to the small intestine.
Biliary Atresia is a rare disease of the liver and bile ducts mostly occurring in infants. The early symptoms of the disease start developing anytime between 2-8 weeks after birth. Bile is a liquid produced by the cells in the liver which helps digest fat. It also carries the waste from the liver to the small intestine for excretion. When an infant is suffering from biliary atresia, the bile flow from liver to gallbladder is blocked causing the bile to be trapped inside the liver, and damaging the liver cells. There are three main types of extrahepatic biliary atresia: Type I: Atresia is restricted to the common bile duct. Type II: Atresia of the common hepatic duct. Type III: Atresia involves the most proximal part of the bile ducts (>95% of all cases).
Biliary colic, also known as gallbladder attack, is a steady or intermittent pain in the upper abdomen, usually under the right side of the rib cage. It mainly occurs when gallstones temporarily block the bile duct during the contraction of the gallbladder. It increases the gallbladder wall tension. In many cases, the pain of this biliary colic resolves over 30 - 90 minutes, as the gallbladder relaxes and the obstruction is relieved. Gallstones are a general case for a common man, because they rarely cause any symptoms and many people are unaware of their presence. Approximately one-third of the population which is affected by gallstones, will develop the painful symptoms of biliary colic.
Biliary Cirrhosis (PBC) or Biliary Tract disease is a state of failure of the bile ducts of the liver. A bile duct carries bile juice from the liver and gallbladder through pancreas to the small intestine. Bile is the fluid produced by the liver that helps in food digestion. It helps to get rid of worn out red blood cells, cholesterol, and toxins from the body. Bile is a dark green or yellowish brown fluid secreted by liver to digest food. A major part of bile is released by the small-intestine and rest is stored in the gall bladder. The symptoms of biliary obstruction depends on the cause of obstruction. The primary sign of this disease is presented by a sharp penetrating pain in the upper abdomen. This disease usually develops very slowly, and taking the right kind of medication can slow its progression.
Interstitial cystitis, popularly known as bladder syndrome, is the chronic condition that results in mild or severe pain and pressure in the bladder and sometimes causes pelvic pain. Your bladder is a muscular hollow organ, the function of which is to store urine. It expands when full and then passes signals to your brain to urinate, using the pelvic nerves as the channel of communication. The urge to urinate is thus created, under normal conditions. But if you have bladder pain syndrome, these signals get mixed up, thereby sending frequent signals to the brain for urination, even if the bladder is not full. The syndrome is more common in women rather than men. If left untreated, interstitial cystitis could result in some complications including decreasing of bladder capacity, reduced quality of life, emotional troubles and sexual intimacy issues.
Nipple discharge is the leakage of fluid from one or both the nipples. Post-pregnancy, it normally happens, due to lactation. However, when nipple discharge has blood in it or is unusual, it is a cause of concern and should be examined by a general practitioner. Discharge from one nipple can be caused by issues with that particular breast. Discharge from both the nipples is most likely the result of medications or an endocrine gland problem, and should be investigated.
Intraepidermal squamous cell carcinoma or Bowen’s disease is named after the American dermatologist John. T. Bowen. Bowen’s disease is a skin disease that marks the early onset of skin cancer. The main symptom of Bowen’s disease is a red, scaly patch.The disease affects the squamous cells in the outermost skin layer. It starts as a slow growing small patch on sun-exposed area like hands, neck, face, etc. The formation of a boil or bump on the affected area indicates formation of aggressive squamous cell cancer. If left untreated, it can spread further, affecting a larger area. The patch grows at a very slow rate and may bleed at times. It may be mistaken with a ringworm or psoriasis disease. Patches in this disease can be a few millimeters in diameter, but can grow to centimeters.
The brachial plexus is the network of nerves that sends signals from the spinal cord to your shoulder, hand and arm. A brachial plexus injury happens when these groups of nerves are compressed, outstretched or ripped apart or torn away from the spinal cord. Minor brachial plexus injuries, known as stingers and burners, are common and can be completely recovered in some weeks. Whereas other injuries are severe enough and could cause endless disability in the arm. Various surgical operations such as nerve transfers, nerve grafts or muscle transfers can help restore function.
Bradycardia is an arrhythmic disease of the heart, in which heartbeat rate is lower than normal. In an adult at rest, the normal rate is 60-72 times per minute. But if you are suffering from Bradycardia, your heartbeat rate will be lesser than 60 times per minute. For some people such as healthy youngsters and trained athletes, this may seem normal and does not cause complications. For others, this could turn into serious trouble, as your heart will not pump the necessary quantity of oxygen-rich blood to your body.
Brain abscess is a condition which leads to a collection of pus caused by infectious material in the brain. Brain abscess is generally caused because of bacterial infection in people with weakened immune system. Lung and heart infection are one of the most common causes of brain abscess.
Brain Attack, also known as brain stroke, happens when the blood supply to a part of your brain is interrupted. Due to deficiency of oxygen and nutrients, the brain cells start to die. Brain attack is a crucial condition and an early action can help to reduce brain damage and complications.
An occurrence of cancer tumours in the brain cells leads to brain cancer. Primary brain tumours are named after the brain tissue type from where cancer develops. Different names and types of brain cancers reflect the different cells in the brain that can become cancerous. Although benign or non-cancerous, tumours can affect the brain functioning, and the grade of cancer determines the severity. Any abnormal growth of cells in the brain is called a brain tumour. It is important to understand that not all brain tumours are cancerous. A benign tumour does not invade the surrounding tissues or spread to other areas. It is the cancerous or malignant tumours that take the nutrients, blood, and space of the healthy cells, and can also spread to other parts of the body. Common brain tumours are gliomas, meningiomas, pituitary adenomas, vestibular schwannomas, and primitive neuroectodermal tumours (medulloblastomas).
Buccal mucosa is the lining of the cheeks and the back of the lips, inside where they touch the teeth. Development of cancer cells or tumour in this area leads to carcinoma buccal mucosa, which is a type of oral cancer. It generally starts in the squamous cells that are thin and flat, and line the lips and the mouth. It is easy to cure carcinoma buccal mucosa, if diagnosed at an early stage. This type of cancer is mostly prevalent amongst men. It is essential to treat it immediately, or it can spread to the mouth, tongue, and other distant body parts. The earlier the cancer is diagnosed and treated, the easier it is to completely remove it.
Carcinoma Esophagus is the cancer of esophageal tube. Esophagus is the tube that connects the mouth through the throat to the stomach, and is also known as the food pipe. It carries food down the throat to the stomach. Esophageal cancer starts developing from cells present in the inner lining of the tube. The disease is more common among men as compared to women. Out of many factors which may cause esophageal cancer, smoking and acid refluxes are the most harmful. Early treatment can stop the disease from spreading further and bring it under control.
When cancer cells form in the larynx tissues, the medical condition is known as carcinoma larynx. Most cancer cells are formed in the thin and flat squamous cells that line the inside of the larynx. This type of cancer comes under the category of head and neck cancer. Carcinoma larynx is treatable, but the effectiveness of the treatment is based upon several factors. The stage of the cancer is the most important factor to consider, along with the exact location and the size of the cancer tumour. A person’s general health, age, and certain bodily parameters also determine the effectiveness of the treatment.
Carcinoma lung is the biggest type of lung cancer occurring both in men and women. The rate of deaths from carcinoma lung has increased with each passing year. Like all other diseases, carcinoma lung also has stages that will determine the level of severity to which the cancer has spread in the whole body. There are two types of this disease, small cell lung cancer (SCLC) and the non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Carcinoma lung as the name is suggestive is some sort of cancerous disease that starts in the lungs. The lungs are regarded as the two types of elastic organs in the chest which will draw in oxygen when inhaled and leave the carbon dioxide out when exhaled. It is basically defined as the growth of abnormal cells that cannot be controlled and that can begin in both the lungs, and especially in cells that line the passages of air. The presence of abnormal cells do not do any good. They do not convert into any healthy lung tissue, and rather divide swiftly and develop into tumours.
This disease is one of the most common kinds of cancer in the pancreas, also known as adenocarcinoma of the pancreas. This disease usually starts in the tissues of the pancreas. The pancreas is an organ in the part of the abdomen that horizontally lies behind the lower part of the stomach. Carcinoma Pancreas is a type of cancer in the pancreas, which if diagnosed early gives a really poor prediction. The pancreas in this disease has both the exocrine and endocrine functions and the cells that are cancerous can form from both types of functional cells. Most of these cancers are known as adenocarcinomas. The condition of carcinoma pancreas is very dangerous, as it develops and progresses at a very high pace and is usually diagnosed later. This type of cancer of pancreas tends to form from those cells that help in lining the system of the ducts that give away enzymes to the small intestine and are frequently regarded as the pancreatic adenocarcinomas. Pancreatic cancer must not be confused with the word pancreatitis, which is regarded as the inflammation of the pancreas and is primarily aroused by alcohol abuse.
A cancer in the prostate gland leads to Carcinoma prostate. It affects only men and generally shows no early signs or symptoms. It starts with fine changes to the shape and size of the prostate gland cells. This is common to most men in their 50’s. Like every other cancer, it is important to know the exact stage of carcinoma prostate to determine effective therapies. This involves understanding the size of the cancer tumor, knowing the exact number of lymph nodes involved, and determining whether there are any metastases. The exact cause for carcinoma prostate is unknown. A family history of the disease is one significant factor. Testosterone also contributes to the growth of carcinoma prostate. It is a very slow growing disease and regular checks and screening can help in early diagnosis and treatment.
Carcinoma rectum is a type of cancer that develops in the rectum, the lower part of the colon which connects our large bowel to the anus. Its most important function includes formation of stool for better evacuation. Our colon is made up of 3 layers, mucosa, muscularis propria and mesorectum. There are muscles and layers in our rectum that help in the sound functioning of our excretion system, but lymph nodes, also known as regional lymph nodes, mostly make the surroundings of our rectum. They are an important factor of our immune system. These layers assist in secretion of harmful external elements like bacteria and viruses. The most critical stage is when the harmful cancer cells spread from the rectum to the lymph nodes, and then to other body parts. Mucosa is the organ which is mostly affected. This cancer affects both men and women equally. Treatment of this kind of cancer involves detailed study about the spread of the infection surrounding lymph nodes. The rectum is a major part of the colon, and its complicated position hinders all the treatment, making it more serious compared to colon cancer.
Carcinoma tonsil is a cancer arising in the squamous cells of the tonsil. The tonsil (soft tissue masses located at the rear of the throat) is the most common host of squamous cell carcinoma of the oropharynx (the middle part of the throat behind the mouth). Carcinoma tonsil is mostly known as tonsil cancer. This type of cancer is one of the major head and neck cancer and develops in some parts of the throat just behind the mouth.
Cardiomegaly refers to an enlarged heart. Although there could be multiple causes, the most frequent ones are high blood pressure and coronary artery disease. The efficiency of your heart would decrease due to cardiomegaly and can result in congestive heart failure. It could also heal by itself and improve over a period of time; most people with an enlarged heart need lifelong treatment with appropriate medication. The major type of enlarged heart is dilated cardiomyopathy. In this type, the walls of both sides of the heart, known as ventricles, become stretched and thin. In the other type, the muscular left ventricle becomes very thick. In a type called hypertrophy, high blood pressure may cause your left ventricle to enlarge. Another type called hypertrophic cardiomyopathy can also be inherited. An enlarged heart can keep and maintain more of its pumping ability when it's ‘thick’ rather than ‘thin’.
Cardiomyopathy is a condition in which the muscles of the heart are abnormal. There are three main types of cardiomyopathy. They are dilated cardiomyopathy, hypertrophic myopathy and restrictive cardiomyopathy. If you have Cardiomyopathy, your heart will find it difficult to pump and deliver blood to the rest of your body. Eventually, it might lead to cardiac arrest. But, cardiomyopathy is treatable. Your cardiologist will decide on the treatment required, based on the type of cardiomyopathy and the complexity of your situation.
Carpal Tunnel Syndrome is a condition in which a nerve in the carpal tunnel is compressed. Carpal tunnel is a narrow passage located in the wrist. The person feels a tingling or numbing sensation in the arm or the hand. The disease is caused due to pressure on the median nerve and hence, is known as a condition of nerve entrapment.
Cataract is the clouding of the natural lens of the eye, which lies behind the iris and the pupil. The disorder causes blurred vision or total loss of vision in people especially above 40 years of age. The disorder develops slowly due to protein build-up in the eye and may affect one or both eyes. Cataract may occur due to age factor or due to trauma to the eye (after an accident). It may also occur after birth or after an eye surgery, as a side-effect. The three types of cataracts are subcapsular cataract, nuclear cataract, and cortical cataract. Subcapsular cataract affects the back of the lens. Nuclear cataract starts from the nucleus of the eye, i.e. the deep central zone of the lens. And, cortical cataract is categorized by white wedge-like patches (opaque) that start from the edge of the lens and extend towards the center of the eye.
Cellulitis is a severe kind of bacterial infection that not only infects the outer layer of the skin, but also the deeper layers inside. The corium is a layer of the skin, and the subcutaneous fats are areas where cellulite majorly infects. The skin will appear reddish and swollen in a couple of days after the infection. The infected area will gradually swell and turn red, and will also be painful. This can happen on any of the body parts, but hands and legs are the most common. The person can also feel tired and feverish. Streptococci and Staphylococcus bacteria are involved in spreading of cellulitis. Sometimes pus is also present in the swelling, which can be a major concern. Since 1990, more than 30,000 deaths have been reported worldwide because of cellulitis.
Dawson Disease, also known as Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE), is a progressive neurological disorder. It is caused by a chronic persistent infection with measles virus that affects the central nervous system. The measles virus may remain inactive and dormant for extended time periods, and then may become activate for no specific reason. It causes brain inflammation and the death of nerve cells, and usually affects children and young adults. If untreated, Dawson disease can lead to death. Therefore, immediate medical attention is necessary as soon as the first sign of symptoms appear. Dawson disease can occur anywhere from 2 to 10 years after the original measles illness. In developing countries, such as India, 20 cases per year in a million are reported.
Degenerative disc disease is an aging associated condition, explaining the breakdown of an intervertebral disc of the spine. These pillow-like discs are responsible for protecting brain, vertebrae and other nerves. This naturally occurring condition may cause numbness, weakness and pain that radiates down the leg. The longer the disc degeneration left untreated, the more the chance of severe chronic pain and other spine problems.
Dengue is a viral infection transmitted by the bite of the female Aedes mosquito which breeds in free-standing water. It could be in your home, in potted plant trays, or even in your fridge. It can also be transferred to the unborn baby in a pregnant woman who is infected with the disease. Congenital dengue is an arboviral disease caused by four types of the dengue viruses (DENV 1-4). Congenital dengue can be dangerous if untreated. The disease can vary from mild to intense, and can take dangerous forms which include dengue shock syndrome and dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF). DHF is also known as break bone fever.
Dental abscess is a medical condition caused by bacterial infection. In dental abscess, pus formation occurs inside teeth or gums, or in the bones that keeps the teeth in place. The types of abscess are: Periapical abscess (abscess of teeth), Periodontal abscess (abscess of gums). Dental abscesses are not always painful, but need medical attention. The condition does not improve on its own and may spread, affecting other body parts. This infection generally happens when you have a tooth decay and it goes untreated. This infection occurs from a cracked tooth, where the dental pulp develops and is exposed to the oral environment. Our mouth is full of plaque (a biofilm or mass of bacteria that grows on surfaces within the mouth) which helps break down food with the help of acids, forming a sticky substance when combined with saliva. If the acid produced is not cleaned or removed, it can damage tooth enamel, which causes dental abscess.
Dental caries are cavities or holes (a type of structural damage) in the teeth. Cavities are formed due to tooth decay which occurs as a result of bacterial infections. Certain types of bacteria produce acids that affect or erode the tooth enamel and the underlying layers, called dentin. This acid is produced when the sugar concentration in the food and drinks reacts with the bacteria present in the plaque. The acid produced leads to a loss of calcium and phosphate from the enamel, and this process is called demineralisation. Salivary bacterial level is related to the oral infection among a lot of children. Strategies for effective management of this disease in early childhood includes risk management, brushing with a toothpaste that is fluoridated, and certain behavioural interventions that affect self-care exercises.
Dental Malocclusion is a condition in which your teeth are misaligned. It happens when your upper jaw and teeth overlap the lower jaw and teeth. The condition is also known as crowded teeth, misaligned teeth, crossbite, overbite, underbite, and open bite. In this condition, the teeth are not able to perform their normal function. If left untreated, it can lead to complex oral health conditions, including digestive problems.
Diabetes refers to an illness that influences how your body utilises the blood sugar known as glucose. The sugar is an important source of energy for the cells that make up your muscles and tissues. It is also vital for your brain as glucose is the main source of energy for the brain. Diabetes is known as an ailment of the pancreas (an organ behind your stomach that creates the hormone insulin). If a person is diabetic, the pancreas either cannot produce enough insulin or utilise the insulin properly. Insulin works with glucose in the circulation system to help it enter the body's cells to be burned for energy. If you are diabetic, regardless of what sort, it implies you have excess glucose in your blood which can lead to medical issues.
Diabetic foot infection is an open sore that usually does not heal, and may lead to serious complications. In many cases, they take form of ulcers and provide an entry route for bacteria which causes infections. They are basically a common complication of poorly controlled diabetes, forming as a result of skin tissue breaking down and exposing the layers underneath. Neuropathy can also cause structural deformities that can compound minor injuries to the foot. Diabetic foot infection is defined as soft tissue or bone infection below the malleoli, and are most commonly seen to occur under the big toes and the balls of the feet, affecting the feet severely.
Diabetic nephropathy, popularly known as diabetic kidney disease, is the medical conditions in the kidney that results in malfunctioning of the kidneys, owing to diabetic condition. Researchers have shown that around 30 percent of those with diabetes are susceptible to diabetic kidney disease. This condition ultimately results in failure of the kidney. In this disease, the glomeruli or the filters of the kidneys get damaged. Therefore, the kidneys would become incapable of filtering out the wastes from your blood. As a result, your urine will have high levels of proteins called Albumins. Healthy kidneys flush out tiny quantities of albumin in the urine. Therefore, diagnosis of higher levels of albumin is the sign that diabetic kidney disease exists. Coupled with other conditions like high blood pressure, high cholesterol or other diseases of the blood and heart, the damages incurred to the kidney are more and cause infections in the bladder and nerve damages. Depending on how much albumin is in the urine, there are two types of diabetic kidney disease: Microalbuminuria – The albumin level in urine is 30-300 mg per day Macroalbuminuria - The albumin level in urine is more than 300 mg per day
Diabetic Retinopathy (DR) is a diabetic complication which targets the eye. It is mostly caused by the damage of light sensitive tissues that are present at the back of the eye. It is the most common cause of vision blindness and impairment among adults. Swelling and distortion of macula is also a reason for the most common complications of retinoplasty. Diabetic eye disease is the primary cause of vision loss. Of an estimated 285 million people with diabetes mellitus worldwide, approximately one third have signs of DR and of these, a further one third of DR is vision-threatening DR, including diabetic macular edema (DME).
The spinal cord is very important because they hold the nerves from the brain. These nerves travel between the vertebrae to relay messages to all parts of the body. The spinal cord is made up of many bones called vertebrae. Between vertebrae are discs made up of strong rubber-like tissues. These discs are quite flexible and they in turn impart flexibility to the motion of the spinal cord. Strong ligaments of the vertebrae provide additional support and strength to the spine. A disc contains a soft material called nucleus pulposus enclosed in a strong layer of outer fibres. A disc prolapse refers to the process of rupturing of the nucleus, when there is an injury to the outer fibres. The soft material of the nucleus then enters the spinal nerves or the spinal canal. This process may either occur gradually over a long period of time or happen suddenly.
The chronic lack of adequate lubrication and moisture on the surface of the eye can result in a condition called dry eye syndrome. Dry eye occurs when the eye does not produce tears properly, or when the tears are not in consistency and evaporate too quickly. In addition, inflammation of the surface of the eye may occur along with dry eye. If left untreated, this condition can lead to pain, ulcers, or scars on the cornea, and also result in some loss of vision. However, permanent loss of vision from dry eye is uncommon. Dry eye can make it more difficult to perform some activities, such as using a computer or reading for an extended period of time. It can also decrease tolerance for dry environments, such as the air inside an airplane.
Dyspepsia is a medical condition caused by the abnormal functioning of the gastrointestinal organs, primarily the stomach and esophagus (the initial part of the small intestine). It a chronic disease, and the symptoms may vary from person to person, and in frequency and intensity. It is a condition which causes pain and discomfort in the upper abdomen. It is caused by acid in the stomach coming into touch with the mucosa of the digestive system. Dyspepsia is a group of symptoms which often include bloating, nausea and burping. The sensation that you get, appears immediately after consuming food and drinks. One can easily relieve their symptoms of dyspepsia, by making significant changes to their lifestyle.
Dysphagia means unsystematic eating. It is the medical term given to a swallowing disorder where people have a hard time swallowing, and choke on their food or liquid when trying to swallow. It is a kind of sensation that indicates obstruction in the passage of solids or liquids from the mouth to the stomach. This disorder may also be associated with severe pain. Occasional difficulty in swallowing occurs when something is eaten too fast or the food is not chewed well enough, which is not usually a cause of concern while persistent dysphagia may indicate a serious medical condition requiring treatment.
Dystonia is a condition that is identified by contractions of the involuntary muscles which cause movements of a repetitive nature. A person might sense painful movements and experience tremors. There are various types of dystonia that are genetic in nature. Dystonia is thought to be a neurological condition, caused by problems of the nervous system. However, in most cases, brain functions such as intelligence, memory, and language remain unaffected. Primary dystonia is mainly hereditary and its generalized form is the most difficult to live with and treat. Dystonia is not associated with problems in thinking or understanding, but depression and anxiety may be present. There are five types of dystonia: Focal dystonia - affecting muscles around the eyes, in the neck, in the throat, or in one of the limbs. Segmental dystonia - affecting an area of the body, such as the neck and an arm. Hemidystonia - affecting the arm and leg on one side of the body. Multifocal dystonia - affecting two or more parts of the body that aren’t connected, such as the left arm and leg. Generalised dystonia – affecting both legs and other regions of the body.
Eardrum perforation refers to rupturing of the eardrum. Human ear is a sensitive organ formed by two parts: the inner and outer ear separated by a thin layer of eardrum. Eardrum protects the inner part of the ear from bacterial infections and water. Its main function is to convert vibrating sound waves into nerve impulses, which further travel to the human brain and convey sound. Eardrum is popularly known as the tympanic membrane. Eardrum rupture or perforation can occur due to many reasons. The most common being ear infections. When the middle layer of ear is infected, pressure starts building, which then pushes against the eardrum and may cause it to perforate. Eardrum perforation is accompanied by sudden pain and pressure, developed due to middle ear infection.
Ebstein’s disease is referred to as a defect of the heart that is rare and is present from birth. It is a kind of malformation in which some parts of the tricuspid valve are abnormal and do not work properly. Tricuspid valve is the valve that is situated between the two chambers of the heart, the right atrium and right ventricle. As a consequence of the damaged tricuspid valve, there may be some blood leakage from the valve, affecting the functioning of the heart. The size of the heart may further be enlarged, causing a heart failure. Quite frequently, this malformation may induce the tricuspid valve to forgo blood in a backward position into the right atrium, while the right ventricle squeezes. This backward flow increases the force in the right atrium which leaves the foramen ovale exposed. Such a condition causes deoxygenated blood to pass from the right atrium to the left atrium, moving directly to the parts of the body. Ebstein’s disease is known as the deformity of the tricuspid valve and is marked by various factors such as the rearrangement of the functional annulus in a downward position, extension of the atrialised part of the right ventricle with some degree of thinning of the wall, dismissal of the frontal leaflet, and expansion of atrioventricular junction.
It refers to any untreated congenital heart defect or cardiac defect that leads to pulmonary hypertension. It occurs in certain people with heart malformations. The condition is generally identified by growing blood pressure in the pulmonary artery which links the heart to the lungs. The increasing blood pressure is the indicator of inadequate blood flow within the heart. It is a consequence of the blood circulation that is not normal and is caused by heart defect. People with this malady are born with a hole between the left and right ventricles of the heart. That hole shall pave way for the blood to pick up oxygen from the lungs to pass back into the lungs, rather than going out to other parts of the body.
Elbow arthritis occurs when the cartilage surface of the elbow becomes worn out or gets damaged. This could be a result of an elbow dislocation or fracture or degeneration of cartilages in the elbow due to age factor. Usually, osteoarthritis happens in those joints that bear the weight of our body parts, such as the hip and the knee. Because the elbow has well matched joint surfaces and strong stable ligaments, your elbow can withstand large forces that act on it, and still be stable. Therefore, the possibility of elbow arthritis is quite rare.
End stage kidney failure is a condition that occurs when chronic kidney disease reaches its final stage. Chronic kidney disease disturbs the kidney function while in the end stage kidney failure, the kidneys stop working completely i.e. they are unable to filter the fluid wastes. This leads to the accumulation of large amount of wastes in the patient’s body which is dangerous for health.
Endometriosis is a condition that affects a woman’s reproductive system. It occurs when the cells present in the uterus start growing outside. It is usually found on or surrounds the abdominal and pelvic organs (includes the ovary). The uterus lining is known as the endometrial. When the endometrium grows in the ovaries, bowel, and renal pelvis, it results in endometriosis. Endometriosis is a gynaecological condition. The hormonal changes affect and misplace the endometrial tissue. The tissue grows, thickens, and breaks down, and embeds itself in the pelvis. According to a survey, 10% of the worldwide population of women aged 15 to 49 suffers from endometriosis. Infertility plague 30% to 40%, and 90% deal with pelvic pain.
Epilepsy, more commonly known as seizure disorder is a neurological disorder, affecting people of all age groups. Main symptoms of epilepsy include recurrent and unprovoked attacks of seizures. If not diagnosed and treated in time, Epilepsy can lead to serious complications. The source of epilepsy is the electrical circuits in the brain. Abnormal electrical events in the brain can cause seizures of different kinds. Epilepsy can occur due to multiple reasons including complications during birth of the baby, brain injury, stroke, brain tumours, brain infections, and abnormal development of brain can be the main cause for epilepsy, although the exact reason may remain unknown in many of the cases. Epilepsy can sometimes be related to genetic factors as well. Epilepsy symptoms can vary according to type of seizures. A focal seizure may originate from a specific part of the brain and will manifest accordingly. A big seizure or generalised seizure is the most common type of recognised seizures. However various other types include transient confusional state, state of starring look with unresponsiveness, some abnormal movements like chewing type, swallowing, rubbing hands or speaking abnormally for a very brief period. Some of the seizures may have just up rolling of eyes with head and eyes going to one side and may have twisting of either arms or hands. Untreated seizures can have serious results and cause harm especially related to fall and injuries to various body parts. The common understanding and public perception regarding epilepsy is often a greater challenge than the seizures itself. Lack of awareness in general public, schools and various organizations leads to stigma of epilepsy. A person with epilepsy should be able to disclose about epilepsy in a healthy and comfortable environment including school, colleges and working places.
Esophageal obstruction, also known as ‘steakhouse syndrome’, is a type of medical emergency caused due to the obstruction of esophagus by ingested foreign body like pork, meat, etc. In medical terms, it is a condition which causes narrowing or blocking of the esophagus. The patient thus feels problem in swallowing food. Esophagus is a muscular tube extending from the pharynx to the stomach. In an adult, it is 11-13 inches long, i.e. 28-33 cm long with an internal diameter of 2 cm. The mucosal layer is moist to allow food to pass to the stomach. The major function of the esophagus is to pass liquids or chunks of food (referred as bolus) through the oral cavity to the stomach.
Ewing’s sarcoma is a rare cancerous disease. It is a tumour in the bone or soft tissues. It has three common names - malignant small, round cell, and blue cell tumour. Ewing’s sarcoma occurs in common areas like the pelvis, the femur, the humerus, the ribs, and collarbone. A common genetic locus is responsible for a large percentage of Ewing’s sarcoma, and are grouped together as Ewing family of tumours. These tumours are not normally painful, but can hurt in certain cases. Sarcoma also grows in other parts of the body like in the back of the abdomen. It can cause pain in the stomach, as well as blockage and bleeding. About 20% of this tumour begins in the stomach, about 10% on the outside of the chest, and 10% on the head or neck. Ewing’s sarcoma occurs in teenagers and young adults, with a male/female ratio of 1:6. Most people notice a lump in their legs and arm, which grows in weeks or months.
An extensive wound or trauma is a severe damage to the soft tissues in the skin. It is a medical condition in which the soft tissues of the skin sustain injury or break down. These severe wounds or injuries can occur after accidents, or due to violence. These accidents may occur at home, or typify road accidents. It can be a self-inflicted wound or somebody else causing skin injury to you. There can be deep cuts by a knife, skin abrasions from metal or glass, skin crushing, animal bites, or bullet injury. A large proportion of people surviving their injuries incur temporary or permanent disabilities.
The spinal cord is surrounded by tough fibrous covering called the dura. The spinal cord and dura are located within the vertebral column. Tumours can occur in any of these parts. There are three types of spinal tumour classified according to their location. Intramedullary tumour, which occurs within the substance of the spinal cord itself or generally in the cervical spinal cord. They are considered most uncommon. They are associated with a dilated fluid cavity called syrinx. Extradural tumour, is a type that grows within the supporting network of cells around the spinal cord. They usually originate in the vertebrae. They can be metastatic or can spread from the primary tumour site through the blood to the spinal cord. The third kind is the Intradural-extramedullary tumour, which grows between the spinal cord and the dura. Such tumours can cause spinal cord compression. These kind of tumours are generally rare, and constitute about 4% of all kinds of spinal tumours. These tumours can give various surgical challenges and their aggressive nature makes it difficult to achieve a clean tumour margin, while reducing the condition of being diseased heavily. However, some molecular drugs, might increase rates of survival and improve overall outcomes.
A healthy body is active and possesses a BMI rate of 17.5 to 25 kg/m2 which means that your body mass index is in proportion to your height and weight. BMI rate varies from people to people. BMI rate for a healthy adult male will differ from that of a healthy female. BMI level is different in different age groups. Likewise, for children at different age, it differs as per the growth. When the BMI level crosses 40 or higher, this condition becomes a serious concern and the person is considered to suffer from extreme obesity.
Eye cancer is a generic term used to explain many types of tumour involved in different parts of the eye. It arises with the uncontrollable growth of healthy cells present in and around the eye, resulting in the formation of a mass called a tumour. It can also trouble exterior parts of the eye, such as the conjunctiva or eyelid. The most familiar eye cancer is retinoblastoma. Treatment for eye cancer differs by the type and its severity and includes many therapies and medications.
The inability to control bowel movements, thereby leading to unexpected leakage of stools from the rectum is called fecal incontinence. It could be simpler meaning occasional leakage of stool while passing gas or it could also be complete loss of bowel control. Fecal incontinence can be embarrassing but do consult a doctor at the earliest. If left untreated, the problems could worsen and decrease the quality of your life.
Fibrocystic is a non-cancerous disease, characterized by lumps in one or both breasts. Fibrocystic breasts, fibrocystic breast disease, and fibrocystic breast conditions are other names for the disease. It affects more than 60% women and causes hormonal problems during menstrual cycles. Other types of the disease are diffuse cystic mastopathy or fibrosclerosis of the breast. The main symptom of this disease is changes in the breast, characterized by fibrous tissues, lumpiness, and a cobblestone texture.
Fibromyalgia is a disorder that causes widespread pain in muscles and skeleton, fatigue, sleep, memory and mood issues. Fibromyalgia amplifies the actual pain you feel by changing the way your brain processes signals of pain. Researchers believe that women are more likely to develop fibromyalgia than men. Also, the disorder usually sets in after a physical trauma or other reasons like infections, surgeries or psychological stress. Sometimes, the symptoms tend to accumulate over time without a single cause to be pointed out. Many people who suffer from fibromyalgia also suffer from anxiety, depression, irritable bowel syndrome, tension headaches and temporomandibular joint disorders. Although there is no known cure to fibromyalgia, there are many medications that help to control symptoms. Also, relaxation, stress-reduction and exercise go a long way in controlling the symptoms of fibromyalgia.
If the arches on the inside of the feet have become flat and because of this the entire sole of the foot is able to touch the floor while standing up, then the person is suffering from a disorder known as Flatfeet. This disorder can lead to defects in the ankles and knees because flatfeet alters the complete alignment of the body. The condition is usually painless, and patients suffering from this defect do not require any treatment for the disorder. But, if the disorder affect the functioning of the knees and ankles, the patient may need medical intervention.
Food poisoning is also known as a food-borne illness, caused by eating contaminated food. The most common cause of contamination is the presence of infectious organisms. They are present and breed in food when incorrectly cooked. It is a common infectious disease that affects people every day. Around 3,51,000 people across the globe die of food poisoning every year.
Adhesive capsulitis, popularly called as frozen shoulder, refers to the pain, stiffness and limited range of movement in your shoulder. If you have frozen shoulders, it means that the tissues around your joints stiffen, causing scars on the tissues and make the movements of your shoulders painful and difficult. It could be a result of an injury or diabetes or stroke or excessive use of the shoulders. Usually, it comes slowly and goes away slowly, in around a year or more.
A gallbladder is a small pear-shaped organ located just beneath the liver. It stores a digestive fluid called bile, produced by your liver. There are three main layers of tissue on the walls of gallbladder. Gallbladder cancer arises when cells in a gallbladder alter and grow out of control, resulting in the formation of a tumour. Gallbladder cancer is quite uncommon. This cancer can be cured perfectly if diagnosed at an early stage. It can also lead to calcification of the gallbladder, a problem known as porcelain gallbladder.
Gastroesophageal reflux disease is a chronic digestive disease in which the acid or content of the stomach flows back into the esophagus, commonly known as the food pipe. This backward flow or reflux causes irritations in the lining of esophagus, thereby leading to gastro esophageal reflux disease. It is possible to reduce mild forms of gastro esophageal reflux disease by adopting changes in lifestyle and taking medications. If the condition is complicated, you might need stronger drugs or even surgery so as to reduce symptoms. When you swallow food, the lower esophageal muscle called sphincter relaxes to allow food inside the esophagus and closes after you eat. This muscle acts like a valve. If this valve gets weakened or if the relaxation pattern turns abnormal, the acids of the stomach like bile juice can flow back into your esophagus, causing frequent heartburns.
Gilbert’s Syndrome (GS) is an inherent disease of the liver. It is a harmless genetic condition in which the liver enzyme (the protein molecule) becomes abnormal and cannot properly process bilirubin (waste due to worn out-red blood cells). It is generally due to a reduced number of chemicals in the liver. People with this disease experience elevated levels of bilirubin pigment, which may lead to yellowing of eyes and skin. It is a genetic condition and is examined when you take a blood test and that reveals high bilirubin levels.
Glaucoma is a group of eye disorders which cause damage to the optic nerve. The optic nerve connects the eye to the brain and transmits images. This optic nerve is damaged when intraocular pressure inside the eye becomes higher than normal. This condition is also called ocular hypertension or high eye pressure. The disorder is an inherited condition and worsens over time leading to permanent vision loss. A timely treatment and detection can protect the eye against serious vision loss and permanent blindness. Two main types of glaucoma are open angle glaucoma (OAG) and narrow angle glaucoma (NAG). OAG refers to cases where the watery fluid built-up inside the eye can access the drainage angle to form its path out of the eye. NAG refers to a condition where the watery fluid cannot access the drainage path.
Glioblastoma, also called glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), is a kind of tumour arising from star-shaped cells (astrocytes) that build up brain supportive tissues. It is a rapidly growing, aggressive type of cancer, which affects parts of the brain and spinal cord. Tumours forming from astrocytes are cancerous as the cells multiply rapidly and are backed by a large network of blood vessels. Glioblastomas comprise a mix of cells types, cultivated by ample blood supply. Dead cells from the centre of the tumour. Since the tumours are formed of normal blood cells, they find it easy to enter and survive within the normal brain tissues.
Globe Rupture' is a drastically disturbed condition of the whole outer state of an eye's membrane, caused by any blunt object or penetrating trauma. It is the damaged state of the globe or eyeball. An open globe injury can disrupt cornea or sclera, or both. This is one of the most serious eye injuries. This differs from blunt trauma to penetrating trauma, each having its consequences. It is an ophthalmologic condition of the eye which requires immediate treatment by an ophthalmologist, as this injury can lead to a high frequency of visual loss and can be very painful to the eye. However, the eye can be rescued with the help of modern diagnostic techniques, surgical approaches, and rehabilitation.
Glomerular disease is a disorder of the kidneys, in which the normal functioning of the kidneys is disturbed and the chemical balance is not maintained in your blood and urine. Healthy kidneys flush out toxins and waste materials in the urine and retain red blood corpuscles and proteins in the blood itself. But in case of glomerular disease, toxins are retained in the blood, whereas red blood cells and proteins get filtered out in the urine. This disorder can be either acute – meaning sudden occurrence or it can be chronic – meaning it builds up over a period. To understand what glomerular disease is, it is important to understand the functioning of kidneys. The kidneys are bean-shaped fist-sized structures located near the rib cage. They have tiny structures called nephrons, which are filtering units for blood. These nephrons are made up of glomeruli and tubules. The function of glomeruli is to filter wastes and excess fluids. The function of tubules is to convert wastes into urine. In glomerular disease, the filtration process of the blood gets affected.
Goodpasture syndrome or GPS is an autoimmune disorder, which affects the underlying membranes of the kidney and liver. The disease occurs when the body’s defense system produces antibodies against collagen and attacks lungs and kidneys. Collagen is a type of protein, which helps in the formation of connectivity tissues. Goodpasture syndrome is also known as antiglomerular basement antibody disease or anti-GBM. The initial symptoms of the disease are mild and misleading, such as fatigue, etc., which are common with other disorders too. If not diagnosed and treated on time, it is fatal and can even claim life.
Graves’ ophthalmopathy, also called thyroid eye disease, is an inflammatory disorder affecting the orbit around the eyes and is characterized by upper eyelid retraction, lid lag, swelling, redness (erythema), conjunctivitis, and bulging. Graves’ disease is a part of the problems caused by a hyperactive thyroid. It is an ocular disease, which if not treated in time can pose a threat to a person’s eyesight. In extreme cases of Graves’ ophthalmopathy, the eye muscles get swollen. They may put extreme pressure on the optic nerve, leading to double vision or total vision loss.
Gum disease or periodontal disease occur due to bacterial infections and swelling of the gums. In this condition, bones surrounding the gums will also swell. It is a chronic inflammatory disease and damages the tissues surrounding the teeth. The first stage of gum disease is known as gingivitis. It is a mild form of the disease, in which an individual will have red, swollen gums. Bleeding will also happen. However, there is no serious discomfort at this stage. If an individual takes good oral care at home, it can often be treated in time. A more serious form of gum disease is periodontitis. During this time, the teeth will loosen up from its roots, bone loss will occur, and tooth fall can also happen. The whole tooth system suffers, as the supporting structures suffer from gum disease. Damage to gingival tissues, ligaments, and bones is common. It is a serious oral disease leading to permanent loss of teeth. It usually happens when gingivitis is left untreated.
Gynecomastia is a disorder affecting males. It is medically defined as the swelling of the male breast tissues due to hormonal imbalance. Gynecomastia can affect either of the breasts, and sometimes both unevenly.The disorder may affect newborn male child, boys undergoing puberty, and even older men. The disorder gynecomastia does not create any serious health issues, but it can be socially and emotionally stressful. Males suffering from the condition may feel a sharp pain at times. The condition may subside on its own. However, in certain cases one might need certain medications or a small corrective surgery. This disease results from an unbalanced hormonal environment in the body, with an excess of estrogens (female hormones) as compared to androgens (male hormones). This disease can even result as a side effect of various medications and drugs.
Cancer is a stage when carcinoma cells begin to grow in an uncontrolled manner. They form a mass that is called as tumor. The most dangerous property of a cancerous cell is that it grows and spreads to other body parts. Head and neck cancer is no different from it. Head and neck cancer is a state when different malignant tumors are developed around: Throat, Neck, Sinus, Mouth, Larynx Most of the cancerous cells found in these areas are squamous. At first the formation of these head and neck cancer cells is flat. Squamous cell produces a thin layer of tissues on the surface of the affected area, i.e. neck, mouth, neck etc. Types of head and neck cancer - Basically head and neck cancer can be divided into 5 major types based upon the body parts where they develop. Laryngeal and Hypopharyngeal Cancer: The larynx is also known as our voice box. It is a tube-shaped organ that is located at the top of wind pipe, also known as trachea in our neck which plays a vital role in breathing, talking and important feathers like swallowing. Gullet is the second name given to hypopharynx that surrounds our lower part of the throat Nasal Cavity and Paranasal Sinus Cancer: This includes major growth of cancer cells in the area in the space behind our nose from where the air passes in our nasal cavity to the throat. These air filled area called paranasal sinuses. Nasopharyngeal Cancer: It is cancer of an organ called nasopharynx. It is the air passageway that is situated in the upper part of our throat behind the nose. Oral and Oropharyngeal Cancer: The oral cavities affect our mouth and tongue the most. This type of cancer includes growth of cancerous cells in the middle of the throat from the tonsils and affects till the top of voice box. Salivary Gland Cancer: As obvious from the name, this cancer affects our salivary glands the most. These glands help us to produce saliva. It is released in our mouth to keep it moist that helps us in breaking the food down. It is the most important organ that helps in food swallowing with the help of enzymes released through our salivary gland.
Also known as atrioventricular block, heart block is a condition where the heart beats too slowly. It occurs within the heart’s electrical system where the signals that command the heart to contract are partly or completed blocked between the upper and lower chambers. There are three types of heart block: First-degree heart block Second-degree heart block or Wenckabach block Third degree heart block or Complete block
The basic function of the heart is to pump the blood which is then circulated to the entire body. Heart failure occurs when the heart fails to pump enough blood to meet the body’s needs. Today, heart failure has become a common ailment across the globe and is the root cause of many heart-related diseases.
Four valves in your heart control the direction of blood flow to and from your heart. Their function is to open and close during each heartbeat. In a condition called stenosis, a valve is unable to open correctly and in another condition called regurgitation, the valve is incapable of closing properly. The four valves in your heart are aortic valve, mitral valve, pulmonary valve and tricuspid valve. Any of these valves could develop an anomaly in its functioning, thereby causing a heart valve disease.
Heel pain usually occurs in the lower or back portion of a person’s heel. It is a commonly observed condition and is rarely a symptom of a serious disease. However, heel pain can interfere with a person’s daily routine including activities like walking and exercising. The pain might get worse with time if not treated properly.
Hemifacial spasm causes involuntary painless twitching on one side of the face due to malfunctioning of the seventh cranial nerve, also known as the facial nerve. It causes the muscles on one side of the face to contract. In its mildest form, the condition may cause no more harm other than slight inconvenience. However, in severe cases, the contractions may interfere with vision. In hemifacial spasm, muscles on one side of the face twitch involuntarily, beginning with the eyelid and then spreading to the cheek and mouth. Twitching may be irregular at first but may become frequent afterwards. The spasms may be caused by an abnormally positioned loop of an artery that compresses the facial cranial nerve where it exits the brainstem. Medical experts have suggested that the condition is caused by disturbances within the facial nerve. The disease has two forms - typical and atypical hemifacial spasm. In typical hemifacial spasm, twitching starts in the lower eyelid. It spreads to the whole lid, and then to the orbicularis oris muscle around the lips. The reverse occurs in a typical hemifacial spasm in which twitching starts in the orbicularis oris muscle around the lips, and progresses up to the orbicularis oculi muscle present in the eyelid.
Hepatitis B is a liver disorder caused by the hepatitis B virus (HBV). It is an infection that may eventually lead to liver failure, liver cancer or cirrhosis. The disease can be prevented using a vaccine which also prevents the infection from spreading.
Hepatitis is caused by a virus named Hepatitis C virus (HCV). The virus infects the liver, which results in inflammation of the liver. The virus is highly dangerous for the human body, and once it has entered, it becomes difficult for the immune system to discard it from the body, and as a result, the infection becomes chronic. The infection caused by HCV is the main root of terminal liver disease, and this liver disease requires a liver transplant. The terminal liver disease is also a major risk factor for liver cancer.
Hepatocellular carcinoma is a condition that commonly arises in patients who are diagnosed with chronic liver diseases such as acute liver failure. Hepatocellular carcinoma is the most common kind of primary liver cancer. Primary cancers like Hepatocellular carcinoma originate from the patient’s liver itself.
Hernia is a localized bulge in the abdomen that occurs when there is a weakness in the muscular wall. It is commonly found in the upper part of the stomach, bellybutton, and surgical scar. It is when fatty tissues or an organ protrudes and surrounds connective tissues or muscles, called fascia. This disease is common in overweight or aged people, who are inactive after abdominal surgery. Hernia is not always life-threatening, but it needs proper treatment because it does not go away on its own. It requires proper surgery to minimise complications.
A hip fracture may be defined as a breakage of the upper quarter of the bone in the thigh. The forces involved contribute to the extent and severity of the damage. If you have a hip fracture, it is a severe injury that requires immediate medical attention. Elderly people are at increased risk of hip fracture, because of osteoporosis or weakening of bones. There are three types of hip fracture namely femoral, intertrochanteric and atypical. Femoral hip fracture occurs in the upper part of the femur, right below the femoral head and ball-socket joint. Intertrochanteric fracture occurs a little below the hip joint, but on the upper portion the femur that protrudes. Whereas atypical fracture is rare and occurs in people who have undergone treatments using bisphosphonates for extended periods of time Usually, a hip fracture needs surgical repair and correction and could take months to cure completely. It is therefore essential to maintain the density of the bone and avoid falls.
Most of us have two kidneys that are located on either side of the spine. The formation of these kidneys happens inside the womb of a mother. During the formation of a baby in the uterus, the kidneys are first formed in the abdominal area and they gradually drift upwards to reach the final position on either side of the spine, as the baby grows in the womb. But in some cases, this process might become defective, leading instead to the formation of a single fused kidney in the shape of a horseshoe. This condition is called horseshoe kidney disease. The phenomenon is relatively rare, that affects 0.2 percent of children globally and is more seen in male children than in female children. To understand how the defect affects you, it is imperative to know the function of kidneys. Kidneys, two ureters, a bladder and a urethra together comprise of an excretory system in human anatomy. The job of your kidneys is to filter out waste from the blood supplied to it and to excrete it from the body. Every day, your kidneys process around 140 liters of blood, to produce around a liter of urine! The waste that gets collected in the kidneys drops down to the bladder through the ureters and is flushed out through the urethra. In short, the function of the kidneys is to remove wastes in the form of urine, balance the levels of fluids, regulate blood pressure, control the count of red blood corpuscles, balance the levels of electrolytes of Sodium, Potassium, Calcium, Magnesium and other acids.
Huntington’s disease is a disorder that is inherited and results in the wasting away or degeneration of nerve cells in certain parts of the brain. It is typically inherited from a person’s parents. A general lack of coordination becomes part of your everyday behaviour. As the disease begins to escalate, uncoordinated, jerky body movements become more apparent. Physical symptoms of this disease can begin at any age, starting from infancy to old age. A parent with a defective Huntingtin gene could pass along the defective copy of the gene or the healthy copy. Therefore, each child in the family has a 50 per cent chance of inheriting the gene that causes this disorder. The defect causes a part of DNA to occur many more times than it is supposed to. Normally, the section of DNA is repeated 10 to 28 times. But in people with Huntington disease, it is repeated 36 to 120 times. The larger the number of times repeated, the higher a person’s chance is, of developing symptoms at an early stage.
In Greek words, ‘Hydro’ means water and ‘cephalus’ means head. Combining these two words, hydrocephalus means water in the brain. Patients suffering from this disease have collected form of CSF (cerebrospinal fluid) in the cavities or ventricles of the human brain. This may result in high intracranial pressure in the skull, and it ultimately leads to an enlarged head, convulsion, and sometimes, mental disability. The disorder usually occurs because of blockage of CSF outflow in the ventricles or in the subarachnoid space over the brain. In a healthy human being, the fluid CSF continuously circulates throughout the brain, the ventricles, and the spinal cord. After the circulation, it is drained away into the circulatory system.
Swelling or inflammation in one or both the kidneys is known as hydronephrosis. Kidneys are the bean shaped organs located in the abdomen. Their function is to filter out waste products from the blood and produce urine. Each kidney is made up of two parts: one parts performs the function of filtering the blood and removing excess salt and water present. The other part collects the urine. When a person has hydronephrosis, too much urine is collected in that part of the kidney which performs the function of collecting urine. The excess urine results in swelling of that part and makes it larger than the usual.
High Blood Pressure is commonly known as Hypertension. It is the pressure exerted by blood against the walls of the blood vessels. In this condition, the blood pressure is higher than 140 over 90mmHg.
Hyperthyroidism is a thyroid disorder in which a person’s thyroid gland becomes overactive and produces more hormones than normal. The thyroid gland is a small, butterfly-shaped gland present in the lower neck and is responsible for producing the hormones- triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4). These hormones play an important role in controlling the body’s metabolism. In Hyperthyroidism, the thyroid gland becomes enlarged. This increases the body’s metabolism and results in sudden weight loss, fast or irregular heartbeat, and anxiety.
Hypoglycemia is a condition characterized by an abnormally low level of blood sugar (glucose), your body's main energy source. Hypoglycemia is commonly associated with the treatment of diabetes. However, a variety of conditions, many of them rare, can cause low blood sugar in people without diabetes. Like fever, hypoglycemia isn't a disease itself — it's an indicator of a health problem.
Hypogonadism is a gonadal disorder in which the body produces insufficient amounts of testosterone. Testosterone is a hormone that plays an important role in the growth and development of the male body during puberty. Hypogonadism may also affect sperm production. The disease may develop during fetal development, before puberty or during adulthood.
Hyponatremia is a condition which occurs when the amount of sodium in a person’s blood becomes lower than normal. Sodium is an electrolyte which helps in regulating the amount of water in and around the cells. In Hyponatremia, the sodium in the body becomes diluted and the body's water level increases. This leads to swelling in the patient’s cells which can cause a number of dangerous health problems.
Hypopituitarism is a rare pituitary gland disorder in which the pituitary gland is unable to produce its hormones in sufficient quantities. The pituitary gland is a small, pea-sized gland situated below the brain, just behind the bridge of the nose. It is responsible for secreting hormones that control the functioning of several other hormone glands in the body like the thyroid gland, the adrenal glands, the ovaries and the testicles. In hypopituitarism, the reduced amount of pituitary hormones disturbs the body's normal functions, such as growth, blood pressure and reproduction.
Hypotension is low blood pressure, especially in the arteries of the systemic circulation. Normal blood pressure of the human body is 90/60 in adults. Hypotension triggers if your blood pressure is less than 120/90 on a regular basis. Hypotension fills the arteries with blood.
Hypothyroidism is a type of thyroid disorder which is caused when the thyroid gland becomes less active and produces fewer hormones than normal. The thyroid gland is a small, butterfly-shaped gland present in the lower neck and is responsible for producing the hormones- triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4). These hormones play an important role in controlling the body’s metabolism. Hypothyroidism disturbs the balance of hormones and chemical reactions that occur in the body.
Immunodeficiency disorder is a medical condition in which your body is unable to fight the external factors like bacteria, viruses, and parasites. It is estimated that immunodeficiency disorder occurs in one among 50,000 adults and in one among 500,000 infants. It happens more in boys than in girls. When the immune system of a body does not function properly, a person is left open to repeated diseases and infections of severe nature. They are either acquired or are infected by an external source. A congenital, or primary immunodeficiency disorder is the one you are born with. Secondary or acquired immunodeficiency disorders mostly happen in the later years of life. Secondary immunodeficiency disorders are more common than primary disorders. Our immune system is a fighting machine that keeps us healthy. Anything that weakens it can lead to a secondary immunodeficiency disorder, resulting in various viruses and bacterial infections.
Commonly known as “school sores,” Impetigo is a contagious bacterial skin infection that happens mainly due to either of the two bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus or Streptococcus pyogenes. Impetigo is the most common skin infection among children. It can occur in adults as well, but remains more prevalent in children. It is a contagious disease and can spread through close contact.
Influenza, commonly known as ‘Flu’, is a viral infection. The flu attacks the lungs, nose, and throat. This flu is an infectious disease which is caused by an influenza virus. This virus spreads through the air from cough and sneezes. This virus can also spread by touching the mouth and then the eyes with the same infectious hands. Washing hands frequently reduces the risk of infection, because the virus is inactivated by soap. Influenza can also affect other animals like pigs, birds, and horses.
Prolapse or painless bleeding of the anal tissue is often associated with internal haemorrhoids. Prolapse is when the hemorrhoidal tissue inside the lower rectum and around the anus, protrude into the anal canal or appear on the outside of the anus, and is felt during wiping or having a bowel movement. Internal hemorrhoidal prolapse is deep inside the rectum, and one cannot see or feel them. Internal hemorrhoidal do not hurt because of the few pain-sensing nerves in that part.
Interstitial cystitis (IC) is a painful bladder syndrome. It is a chronic disorder in which the patient will feel bladder pressure, bladder pain, and pelvic pain. Mostly, women are affected by it and it can have a long lasting impact on the quality of life. The exact cause of IC is still to be found, but it is highly probable that many factors contribute to the spread of this disease. For example, defect in the epithelium (protective lining of the bladder) is also seen in patients suffering from IC. The leak in the protective lining mix toxic substances with urine, which leads to irritation in the bladder wall. It is believed that autoimmune reactions, heredity, infection, and allergy contribute to IC, but it is still to be proved. Associated factors with high risk of IC include females, age of a person (30 years or older), and chronic pain disorder.
Intradural spinal mass lesions or tumours are uncommon compared to intracranial or extradural masses, and affect only a minority of the population, and can be challenging to diagnose. Most tumours in the spine are metastatic which means they spread from another part of the body into the spinal region. Intradural spinal tumours are located in the part of the dura in the spinal cord. Intradural tumours can be classified as intramedullary or extramedullary. Intramedullary tumour is known to be located within the spinal parenchyma, and extramedullary tumour is found within the dura, but outside the spinal parenchyma. Common extramedullary tumours include meningiomas, and schwannomas, while intramedullary tumours include astrocytomas, and intramedullary ependymomas. It is a rare tumour that can be associated with dysraphic defects. The origin of these tumours is traditionally thought to be secondary to primordial germ cells.
It is a common disease that starts by affecting your large intestine (colon). The disorder leads to abdominal pain, discomfort in the body, bloating, gas, diarrhoea, or constipation. Only a small amount of population suffering from the disorder experiences severe signs and symptoms, and might need counselling and medication, while most of the patients can relieve of symptoms with simple changes in their lifestyle. Irritable Bowel Syndrome does not result in any permanent damage to the intestine. It does not lead to any changes in the colon tissues and is neutral towards the chances of colorectal cancer. The precise cause of IBS is still to be found. Intestine walls are lined with muscle layers that regulate the movement of food through the intestinal tract to the rectum, via its relaxation and contraction in a coordinated rhythm. In some people suffering from the disorder, the contractions are stronger. As a result, the food is forced out more quickly which results in gas, bloating, and diarrhoea.
Jaundice is a yellowish discolouration of the skin, mucous membranes, and the outer layer of the eyeball caused by elevated levels of the chemical bilirubin in the blood. When iron is removed from hemoglobin in RBC (red blood cells), the waste remains in the bloodstream. This is called bilirubin. When bilirubin is generated in excess and is accumulated in the bloodstream, various conditions of jaundice come into existence. Bilirubin is the breakdown product of hemoglobin and when it is transmitted openly in the blood, it is known as unconjugated bilirubin. There are numerous treatments for jaundice, depending on the cause. Treatment for pre-hepatic jaundice aims to intercept the speedy breakdown of RBCs, which creates bilirubin tiers in the blood. In intrahepatic jaundice, treatment is focused at care of the liver. Newborn jaundice takes about a couple of weeks to heal and is usually not a matter of concern.
Keratoconus is an eye disorder in which the round cornea narrows and begins to swell into a corn-like figure. This distorts light as it enters the eye. Since the cornea is accountable for refracting most of the light entering the eye, a narrowed cornea leads to blurred vision, double vision, nearsightedness, and astigmatism. It is an eye disease that leads to progressive narrowing of the cornea. Usually, both eyes are affected. In more severe cases, a marking or a circle may be seen inside the cornea. While the source is unrevealed, it is believed to be due to an amalgamation of genetic, environmental, and hormonal factors.
Renal cell cancer (also called kidney cancer) is a disease in which cancer cells are found in the lining of tubules in the kidney. There are 2 kidneys, one on each side of the backbone, above the waist. They filter the blood and take out waste products and make urine. The incidence of kidney cancer seems to be increasing. One reason for this may be the fact that imaging scans such as Ultrasonography are being used more often. Fortunately, in many such cases, kidney cancer is found at an early stage, when the tumors are small and confined to the kidney, making it easier to treat. A significant number of such patient can be cured with surgery.
A patella or a kneecap is a small bone that connects the bones of your thigh and your leg. The function of a patella is to protect the joint in the knee, by acting like a shield. The bones of the thigh, patella and legs are covered with articular cartilage, a slippery fluid that enables smooth movement of bones when you walk. Because the kneecap is a shield, it can get injured in falling or tripping. Fractures in the knee vary not only in the area damaged, but also in the extent of damage. The kneecap could slightly crack or get broken into pieces. It could happen at the top or center or lower parts of the patella. It could also exist in many parts of the kneecap. Other variations could be stable fracture, displaced fracture, open fracture and comminuted fracture. In stable fracture non-displaced fracture, the broken pieces would be aligned and they also stay in place during the process of healing. In a displaced fracture, the broken pieces are not aligned but are separated. Often, this requires surgical correction. An open fracture is a fracture when the damage is not only to the bone but also to the neighboring muscles, ligaments and tendons, the skin may open to make the bone visible. This happens during excessive damage and is a complicated case. A comminuted fracture is a fracture when the bone gets shattered into more than three pieces, it is called comminuted fracture.
Laryngeal Cancer is a cancer that affects the larynx and is commonly known as the cancer of the voice box. Larynx is a part of the throat between the trachea and the base tongue. It contains the vocal cords and is divided into three parts. Supraglottis is the upper part of the larynx that is above the vocal cords and includes the epiglottis. Glottis is the middle part of the larynx and this is where the vocal cords are located. Subglottis is the lower part of the larynx which is located between the trachea and the vocal cords. When cancer cells are formed in the larynx tissues, it is known as laryngeal cancer. Most cancer cells are formed in the thin and flat squamous cells that line the inside of the larynx. This type of cancer comes under the category of head and neck cancer. Laryngeal cancer is treatable, but the effectiveness of the treatment is based upon several factors. The stage of the cancer is the most important factor to consider, along with the exact location and the size of it. A person’s general health, age, and certain other body parameters also determine the effectiveness of the treatment. All these factors affect the patient’s chances of recovery.
Lipid disorders are a group of medical conditions which occur due to increased levels of fatty substances like cholesterol and triglycerides in a person’s blood. High cholesterol may lead to development of fatty deposits in the blood vessels which limits the flow of blood through the arteries. Lipid disorders increase the probability of heart disease and may even lead to stroke. The types of cholesterol are: High-Density Lipoprotein (HDL) Cholesterol: Lipoproteins are substances that carry cholesterol in the blood. HDL cholesterol is also known as “good’ cholesterol because it helps in removing excess cholesterol and preventing cholesterol build up in the blood vessels. This decreases the risk of heart disease. Low-Density Lipoprotein (LDL) Cholesterol: LDL cholesterol is commonly known as bad cholesterol. It grows in the inner walls of the arteries contributing to the formation of cholesterol plaques. Cholesterol plaques can block up arteries resulting in the hardening and narrowing of arteries (atherosclerosis).
Liver cancer, or hepatocellular carcinoma, is one of the deadliest cancers known. It involves growth of cancerous cells called hepatocytes inside the liver. The cancer cells are known to spread from one body part to another. In case of liver cancer, it is not necessary that the cancerous cells are restricted to the liver only. After affecting the area, the cells can move to other body part such as the breast, colon, or even the lungs. Metastatic liver cancer is also a type of liver cancer found in liver but has originated in some other region. The origin organ can be the lungs, colon, bladder, pancreas, kidney, ovary, breast, stomach, or the uterus. These organs are more prone to getting affected and then spreading the infected cells to the liver. Other than the common liver cancer (hepatocellular carcinoma), there are other types of liver cancers namely, intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma and hepatoblastoma. They occur when the cancer cells develop in the ducts of the liver.
Liver cirrhosis is a slow-developing disease in which normal tissues of the liver are replaced by abnormal/scar tissues. The disease prevents the normal flow of blood through the liver and stops the liver from functioning properly, leading to a long-term damage. Cirrhosis even affects the abdominal blood vessels, and the huge portal vein, which transports blood from the intestines and spleen through the liver. Cirrhosis causes ailments such as jaundice, excessive itching, and fatigue. Mild cirrhosis can be easily treated, but advanced stages may cause widespread liver damage.
The electrical system of your heart controls your pulses by using two factors. One is your heart rate or the number of times your heart beats per minute. The second factor is the rhythm of your heart or the synchronization between the two atria and the two ventricles of your heart. To achieve these, it is the duty of the electrical system to maintain a steady heart rate and rhythm in the sinus. The sinus controls the contraction of atria and ventricles. Q and T waves refer to the electrical impulses that are the cause of contraction and expansion of the chambers of the heart. ‘QT interval’ is the time lapse between the start of the Q wave and the end of the T wave, in the electrical cycle of the heart. On an average, the QT interval lasts from 0.2 to 0.4 seconds. If the QT interval is longer, it could cause imbalances in the rhythm of the heart, called arrhythmia. This phenomenon is called ‘Long QT syndrome’. If the QT interval is shorter, it might indicate that the blood has high levels of calcium content. This is referred to as ‘Short QT syndrome’.
Malaria is caused by parasites that are transmitted through the bite of the Anopheles mosquito. It is a life-threatening blood disease, and can be cured, if detected in its early stages. Malaria can cause complications such as swelling of blood vessels in the brain, or cerebral malaria (which can result in breathing problems, failure of the kidney and liver, destruction of red blood cells and coma). The number of malaria cases witnessed a global decline of about 18%, from an estimated 262 million in 2000 to 214 million in 2015. However, the contagious disease hasn’t been contained.
Male infertility is a condition which is caused due to low sperm production, abnormal sperm function or blockages that prevent the delivery of sperm because of which the couple isn’t able to conceive a child despite regular, unprotected sex. Male infertility may be caused due to injuries, chronic health problems, lifestyle choices or due to some other factors.
Melanoma is the most dangerous type of skin cancer and develops from melanocytes. It is identified by the presence of moles that are black or brown in colour. It is more common in men than women. Early diagnosis ensures successful treatment. Undiagnosed melanoma can spread to other parts of the body. It is a kind of cancer that develops in pigment cells called melanocytes. Melanoma can be of more serious nature than other forms of skin cancer. It might spread to other parts of the body and cause serious illness, or even death.
Metastasis is the process by which cancer or other disease advances to other parts of the body without being directly connected with it. The metastatic cancer is the one which spreads from the basic site of emergence into different parts of the body. The common areas of spread in metastatic cancer are liver, lungs, bones, lymph nodes, etc. Basically, in metastatic cancer, cancer cells break away from the site of their formation and travel through the lymph and blood system to form new tumors in other areas of the body.
Myasthenia Gravis (MG) is a neuromuscular disorder which results in weak and fragile skeletal muscles. Skeletal muscles are attached to bones by tendons, and they produce all the movements of body parts in relation to each other. The disorder occurs due to abnormal communication between muscles and nerves. The disorder can affect any age group. However, it is more prominent in younger women who are less than 40 years of age, and in men who are older than 60 years.
Nasal Polyps are soft, tender, and non-cancerous growth inside the nasal cavity. These hang from the nose lining (usually both nostrils) like tear drops resulting in a running nose, loss of smell, decreased taste, etc. The polyps may vary in size and can be yellowish or pink in appearance. Large polyps can cause breathing difficulties and affect the patients smelling power. They block sinus and cause infections. The disorder seems to affect more than 10 million people per year in India alone. Nasal polyps are common in men as compared to women and can arise at any stage. People suffering from asthma, sinus, and allergies are more likely to develop the disorder.
Necrotic tissue is a medical condition in which there are dead cells in your body organ. The death of the cells happens due to lack of oxygen and interrupted blood supply. It causes the cells to be acidic, releasing enzymes that break the cells. The malfunctioning of cells can make other body parts inactive. It can later result in puncture of the cell membrane. Ultimately, the cell walls will explode due to the collection of extra fluid. Necrotic tissue is the result of skin necrosis. Necrosis is a premature death of cells which occurs due to autolysis (self-digestion of cells after release of enzymes). These cells are a part of the living tissue inside the skin. Necrosis occurs due to external injury or trauma in a particular organ. Necrotic tissue is skin necrosis, in which many cells die in the same organ. It is considered to be a damaging health condition, as it can result in serious diseases like skin cancer. Each year there are more new cases of skin cancer than the combined incidence of cancers of the breast, prostate, lung, and colon. Over the past three decades, more people have had skin cancer than all other cancers.
Nephrolithiasis is a condition which occurs due to the formation of hard deposits of minerals and salts in a person’s kidneys. These deposits are also known as kidney stones. Kidney stones can disturb the functions of the kidneys, the urinary tract and the bladder. The stones can be passed out of the body along with urine and cause no permanent damage if they're detected at an early stage. However, they may get stuck in the urinary tract and lead to complications (urinary infections) if they are larger in size.
When your body starts to excrete too much protein in your urine, the condition is nephrotic syndrome. Kidneys filter the excess waste from our body and the damage to the clusters of the blood vessels of the kidney results in nephrotic syndrome. It is caused due to damage to the glomeruli, the structures in the kidneys responsible for filtering the blood. As a result of this damage, the protein in the blood leak into the urine and increases the excretion of protein(proteinuria). It is soon followed by a reduction in albumin levels in the blood. This condition may affect adults and children of both sexes. It is a disease specific to the kidneys, its glomerular inflammation is associated with the impaired kidney function.
Nerve injury is when a nerve stops transmission of signals from one side of the brain to the other, prevents muscles from working, and causes a loss of feeling in the area supplied by that nerve. There are three basic types of nerve injury. The first kind is where the nerve is bruised and does not work properly for a short period of time, but all the inner cables remain intact. This type of nerve injury recovers fully and leaves no deficit at all. The second kind is where the inner cables are damaged, but the outer layer remains intact. The third kind is where the nerve is divided, and both the outer layer and inner cables are divided. This type of injury requires the nerve to be repaired, if it is to recover.
Nystagmus is a condition of uncontrollable eye movements, that maybe side to side, up and down or in a circle. Due to unintentional eye movements, it is generally referred as ‘dancing eyes’. It usually arises in infancy, but can also be developed later in life. Once assumed incurable, now various drugs and treatments are available for nystagmus. Early diagnosis and treatment would prevent the risk of limited or reduced vision.
Obsessive compulsive disorder(OCD) is a chronic anxiety disorder. People who are affected by this mental illness experience severe anxiety as a result of obsessive thoughts. OCD can begin early, starting between 7-12 years of age. In fact, half of all adults with OCD say their symptoms started when they were children. it occurs in 2-3% of adults and children during their lifetime. OCD is characterized by some obsessions and compulsions that turn into urges, but the ways in which OCD symptoms manifest, vary from person to person. Sometimes, compulsions are used to reduce the anxiety caused by obsessions. Many intelligent people suffer from anxiety disorders, including OCD. With good coping mechanisms and treatments in place, it is possible to live a happy and productive life.
Ocular Melanoma is a rare type of cancer that develops in the eye. This type of eye cancer may occur in the front of the eye (on the outermost layer) and can affect the eye socket and the eyelid. Ocular melanoma is commonly abbreviated as ‘OM’. It is a dangerous kind of tumour that can spread and really be fatal. It commonly targets people above the age of 55.
Oesophageal cancer is cancer that happens in oesophageal, the food pipe that runs from your throat to stomach. Oesophageal is a part of the digestive system that helps to transport the food you swallow. Oesophageal cancer is an infectious tumour which starts in the mucosa and with the growth of tumour, it may spread to other parts of the body. This cancer is often found in the bottom section of the oesophageal. There are two types of oesophageal cancer- adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma. With more frequent in men than in women, the treatments depend on cancer’s location and stage.
The optic nerve carries electrical impulses from the photoreceptor cells in the retina of the eye to the visual cortex in the brain. Any damage to the optic nerve or its pathways can cause serious damage to the eyes and can also result in loss of vision. One of the main disorders that can affect the optic nerve is optic neuritis. It is basically inflammation of the optic nerve that is caused by damage or loss of the myelin, the protective sheath that surrounds the optic nerve. Researchers believe optic neuritis develops as a result of inflammation and damage to myelin. The two nerves play an important role and meet at the optic chiasm. The optic nerve divides, and half of the nerve fibers from each of the sides cross to the other side. Because of damage and loss of the protective sheath, inflammation of the nerve is caused.
Osteoarthritis refers to the process of degeneration of protective cartilages around the bones. A cartilage is a firm and slippery tissue that enables smooth and frictionless motion in the joints of the body. Osteoarthritis is the most common form of arthritis and it can damage any joint in the body, mostly the hands, knees, hips, and spinal cord. The cause and the process underlying the formation of osteoarthritis cannot be reversed. However, the symptoms can be managed effectively by maintaining a healthy lifestyle.
Osteoporosis, best explained by breaking down the word ‘Osteoporosis’ meaning ‘reduced bone density’, is a medical condition in which bones become weak and brittle. This thinning of bones and weak bone crystals put the person at a greater risk of getting bone fractures. This condition can affect any gender, but is more prevalent in women who have crossed menopause. As per a report from National Osteoporosis Foundation, a healthy bone has an architecture similar to a honeycomb. In comparison, a bone with low density will have larger holes compared to a healthy bone.
The pancreas is a large gland in the digestive system which is positioned in the abdominal cavity just behind the stomach. With the function of producing several vital hormones, it is also a digestive organ. Pancreatic cancer arises when pancreatic cells begin to grow out of control with the formation of a mass, called tumor. These cancerous cells can also effect others parts of the body. There are many types of pancreatic cancer. People who don’t smoke and maintain a healthy lifestyle are at a lower risk of developing this cancer. With its increasing cases every year, the chances of survival is low when diagnosed at a later stage. There are many treatment options available that can advance the quality of life of people with pancreatic cancer.
Parkinson’s disease is a progressive disorder of the nervous system that affects movement. It occurs when the nerve cells present in the brain do not produce enough of the brain chemical, known as dopamine (one that is used to send messages to parts of the brain that control movement and coordination). As this disease develops, dopamine inside the brain decreases, making it hard to control movement. It is a chronic disorder for many, as the symptoms continue to worsen over time.
Pelvic prolapse is a disease in women that happens when a pelvic organ like the bladder drops from the regular position and pushes against the walls of the vagina. Pelvic prolapse happens when the muscles that hold your pelvic organs in their positions, become weak or stretched due to childbirth or surgery. Although many women are prone to pelvic prolapse after motherhood, it may not always cause complications of health. It could also get better with time, without medication. One or more organs could prolapse at once. These organs are bladder, uterus, urethra, vagina, rectum and small bowel. The most common manifestation of pelvic prolapse is in the form of pelvic prolapse.
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), is a type of hormonal disorder causing enlarged ovaries with cyst formation on the outer layer. The symptom is caused due to raised male hormone (androgen) in the woman's body. PCOS causes a problem with women’s menstrual cycle, fertility, and appearance. PCOS is the most common disorder among women between age group 18-44. It has no definite cure, and only weight management and exercise can bring about noticeable changes. Hormonal imbalance is another factor contributing to PCOS. This indirectly affects development and release of eggs during ovulation cycle. Excess insulin (the hormone which converts sugars into starch) also cause high androgen levels.
Prostate cancer is a form of cancer that develops in the prostate gland of the male reproductive system. Most prostate cancers grow slowly and occur in the form of malignant tumour that usually begins in the outer part of the prostate. In most men, the cancer grows very slowly. In fact, many men with the disease will never know they are suffering from prostate cancer. Early prostate cancer is confined to the prostate gland itself, and the majority of patients with this type of cancer can live for years without showing any signs and symptoms of cancer. The exact cause of prostate cancer is not known to the doctors. But, it is believed that genes (family history) may have some interference. The eating habits also contribute to the probability of its occurrence.
Chronic sinusitis, also known as rhinosinusitis, is a condition in which the person affected has swollen nasal passages (sinuses-a cavity which connects your skull with nasal activities), for an extended time. The condition is diagnosed when the inflammation continues for more than 10 weeks and when normal treatment for sinus is not working. A stuffed up nose and pressure on the cheekbones can often mean acute sinusitis. A person will not be able to drain his/her nose, due to infection and swelling of the nose. The condition is common among adults and rare in children. Chronic sinusitis is a common disease worldwide, particularly in places with high levels of atmospheric pollution. Rhinosinusitis is more common in the pediatric population because this term includes both acute and chronic infection and both viral and bacterial disease.
Refractive error is an eye disorder, in which the patient has a distorted eye shape and vision. Technically it means that the eye is not reflecting the light properly, and therefore the patient will suffer from blurred vision. It is a common eye disorder. Initially, the patient will not be able to focus properly, and if the condition becomes severe, the patient is likely to experience total blindness. This eye disorder is not a preventable condition but is treatable. A simple eye test can help in the diagnosis of this condition, and timely correction will save the patient from any additional medical complexities. WHO estimates that 153 million people worldwide live with visual impairment due to uncorrected refractive errors. This figure does not include the people living with uncorrected presbyopia, which is likely to be quite significant, according to some early evidence.
Renal tubular acidosis refers to the electrolytic disturbances caused due to impaired excretion of renal Hydrogen ions or impaired bicarbonate resorption or abnormal production of aldosterone. This condition leads to a chronic metabolic acidosis with a gap in an anion. Usually, hyperchloremia or excess of chlorine in blood may be present. Other features may be with electrolytes of Potassium and Calcium. Chronic renal tubular acidosis is associated with damages of renal tubules in your kidneys. If ignored or not diagnosed at the right time, this condition may lead to chronic kidney diseases. Renal tubular acidosis is classified based on the mechanism involved. If the impairment is with Hydrogen ion excretion, the defect is called Type 1 renal tubular acidosis. In Type 2 renal tubular acidosis, impairment is caused due to bicarbonate resorption. In Type 4 renal tubular acidosis, the defect is caused by decrease in the level of aldosterone. Type 4 is very common, whereas type 1 is rare and type 2 is extremely rare.
Respiratory failure happens when some fluids get accumulated in the air sack of the patient's lungs. Due to this fluid, the lungs are not able to release oxygen into the blood. Deficiency of oxygen leads to malfunctioning of the body's vital functions. Respiratory failure usually develops due to an injury or illness.
Rheumatic heart disease describes a group of short-term (acute) and long-term (chronic) heart disorders that occur as a result of acute rheumatic fever. Damage of the heart valves is a common result of rheumatic fever. It is these damages that lead to the defect in the heart. Acute rheumatic fever is a condition in which the connective tissues of the body, the heart, joints, brain, and skin are swollen. It is usually seen in children who are 5 to 15 years old. On an average, 60% of those with rheumatic fever develop heart diseases at a later stage of life. All parts of the heart get damaged due to inflammation. The most affected is generally the mitral valve.
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA), is an autoimmune disorder affecting the joints of the hands and feet. RA occurs when the body’s defence system attacks its own tissues. The attack results in swollen, painful joints with a stiffness that worsens after rest or sleep. Unlike osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis affects joint lining which causes swelling and pain, and leads to bone erosion and joint deformities, over a period of time. There is no definite cure for the disease, however new types of medications have definitely improved the chances of getting treated. Physical therapy and medications help to slow down the severity of the disease.
Accidents on the road are the most common scenario these days. Reckless driving, increased number of vehicles, and careless attitude have led to massive rise in death toll due to road accidents. The injuries incurred due to road accidents are not limited to physical deformities, and results in loss of life as well. With very little space to walk and limited size of roads, it is becoming impossible to avoid accidents. As per the global data, approximately 1.3 million people die in road accidents each year, averaging to 3,287 deaths in a day. It is alarming because the number of vehicles is increasing day by day.
Rosacea or acne rosacea is a condition that majorly affects middle-aged women. The disease begins as redness on the face and progresses as small, red, painful, pus-filled bumps. It spreads to the chin, forehead, ears, and in many cases, to the chest or back. The condition can be controlled or treated with the help of medication but is not 100% curable.
Scabies, previously known as the seven-year itch, is a contagious skin infestation caused by the mite Sarcoptes scabiei. These mites dig deep into your skin to deposit eggs and live, and cause an allergic reaction. It starts with a little itchiness in between the fingers, wrists, or near the waistline and turns into severe itching, rashes, and pimples. Scabies typically target the young and is often worse at night. It often spreads by direct skin contact with an infected person (possibly during sex). The spread of the disease may occur even when the person has no symptoms. Crusted scabies is an advanced type of scabies. It only affects people with poor immune systems. Scabies starts as a small rash or a pimple that is itchy. It then progresses to form tiny burrows in the skin.
Scrotal is the loose skin or muscular sac portion in the male testicle organ (male reproductive system). The scrotum (or scrotal sac) is located under the penis. Its primary function is to protect testicles, blood vessels, and assist in sperm production (since it consists of spermatic cord). The spermatic cord contains lymphatic vessels, organ nerves, and excretory duct of the testicles. Scrotal or testicular exploration is examination of the testicle region. It is done to treat the condition of testicular torsion. When a testicle rotates, the spermatic cord is also twisted and interrupts the blood flow to the scrotum. The condition when blood supply cuts to the testicles is known as ischemia. Under this condition, the patient will experience pain and swelling. Testicular torsion commonly occurs in young boys (12-16 years). It can even occur during birth. It is an emergency condition, which needs emergency care. Only quick treatment will save the testicles of the patient. If it is severely damaged, then testicles have to be removed.
Sepsis arise when chemicals discharged into the circulation system to fight diseases trigger inflammatory responses. This can, in turn, trigger a course of changes that can harm different organ systems and cause them to fail. Sepsis is common in old age and in people with a weak immune system.
A severe bone fracture is a condition in which the bone becomes discontinuous owing to the damages caused due to stress or high force impact. An injury or other medical conditions like osteoporosis or brain cancer could also result in severe bone fracture. If the covering skin is intact, it is called closed fracture and if the skin is open and the bones are broken, it is called an open fracture. Open fractures are prone to infections. If there are other wounds in close proximity of the fracture, it is called a compound fracture. There are various other types of fracture like clean fracture, contaminated fracture, displaced fracture, non-displaced fracture, linear fracture, transverse fracture, oblique fracture, spiral fracture, compression fracture, impact fracture, complete fracture, incomplete fracture, comminuted fracture, etc
Burns, as commonly associated with injuries, is a condition in which the patient experiences a heightened burning sensation on the skin. Clinically, it is defined as a condition in which the skin is severely damaged, and so are the skin cells and tissues. Under severe burns, the skin cells will die. In this condition, the patient has to be treated under emergency to avoid further health complications. In human anatomy, skin regulates the body temperature and fluid. Under severe burns, skin loses its ability to control the body temperature. The body will also become susceptible to bacteria and virus attacks. Under any type of burn injury, swelling and fluid collection happens in the burn area. It is likely to break skin, and exposes the body to risk of infection. According to W.H.O, an estimated 2,65,000 deaths every year are caused by burns, with the vast majority in low-and middle-income countries. Non-fatal burn injuries are a leading cause of morbidity, and occur mainly in home and at workplace.
Shingles, also called herpes zoster, is a painful rash with blisters. It is caused by reactivation of the chicken pox virus (varicella zoster). The rash occurs on one side of the body or face, affecting a small area. The disease is common among older people or those with a weaker immune system (due to stress, injury, illness, or a high dose of medication). It subsides on its own in a few days, and is treatable. As per a report, hospitals in India record more than 1 million cases of shingles every year.
Skin allergies are referred to as irritated skin with symptoms like bumps, red patches, and itching. They are caused by a number of factors, such as infections, immune system disorders, and reactions to medicines. The various types of skin allergies are; eczema, dermatitis, urticaria and angioedema. Eczema is a common skin problem affecting infants more than adults. The disease is due to drying of the skin, resulting in irritation and inflammation when exposed to environmental factors. It is often linked to asthma, allergic rhinitis, or certain types of food allergies. Dermatitis is a type of allergy that occurs when skin comes in contact with a certain type of alloy or allergen. People develop allergic reactions to alloys like nickel, causing red patches, irritation, and itching. Urticaria is another kind of allergy, and is also referred to as hives. It is triggered when the immune system produces the histamine hormone. It causes small blood vessels under the skin to leak and cause swelling. Angioedema is swelling underneath the skin. It is usually a reaction to a trigger, such as a medication or something a person is allergic to. All these types of skin allergies together might cause a lot of trouble to our sensitive skin, but the advancement of cutting edge technology also gives us access to a thorough treatment of it.
Since skull base tumour is rare, risk factors are hard to determine but once caught, it can be life threatening. Most Skull Base Tumours grow inside the skull but some form on the outside. The term ‘skull base tumour’ refers to the location of a brain tumour. A skull base tumour is an abnormal growth in the part of the brain that meets the base of the skull. The type of cancer cells can be several including both cancerous and noncancerous cells, which are hostile and tender in nature respectively. Most skull base tumours that are benign and grow slowly can cause serious damage to the mechanism of the brain because they tend to develop in a confined space of the brain. Skull base tumours originate from the neurovascular structures of the base of the brain, the cranial base itself or the subcranial structures of the head and neck.
There are many proven diseases that are caused, once a person starts smoking regularly. The main reason why smoking is injurious to health is because it hinders our body’s filtering of air and cleaning procedure of the lungs. That is why lungs are undoubtedly the most affected organ of a person who smokes. Smoking paralyzes cilia, an organ that is hairy and helps in cleaning of dirt and dust particles. When cilia is affected, mucus and toxin get accumulated in our lungs, resulting in congestion. In extreme conditions, it can become chronic bronchitis -- widely known as smokers cough. As per the recent survey, it was found that 80% of people who smoked were affected by lung cancer. Smoking emerged as the undoubtful cause of lung cancer in many patients. Some of the major smoking related lung diseases are: Asthma Asthma is as a lung disease that narrows and inflames the airways in the lungs. It is of chronic nature and causes continous periods of wheezing, breathlessness, coughing, and chest pain . The airways are defined as tubes that carry air in and out of the lungs. The inflammation causes the airways to swell and become very sensitive. The airways strongly react to inhaled substances, and this reaction causes the muscle to tighten. The swelling can also make the cells to produce mucus that can further narrow the airways. Emphysema Due to continuous smoking, the lung structure of a person is affected. The elastic wall that our lungs have, breaks down, resulting in a minimum transfer of oxygen from air to our blood. This condition is medically known as emphysema. A person who is a chain smoker is likely to have some sort of emphysema, depending upon the various levels of infection in the lungs. Once the tissues that carry oxygen to our blood are damaged due to smoking, they cannot reform. The only corrective measure is to avoid smoking. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) Chronic bronchitis is a condition when inflammation happens in the bronchial tubes present in the lungs. The inflammation caused, narrows the tubes, which makes it difficult to breathe. It causes persistent cough often followed by mucus (sputum). Chronic bronchitis is another form of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Lung cancer The deadliest disease caused by smoking is lung cancer. It has resulted in numerous deaths over a period of time. The most important factor found in all the patients affected by lung cancer is smoking. Many people are not aware about the fact that even passive smoking is a reason for a person to suf
Spondyloarthritis is a term used to define inflammatory diseases, covering joints and joining points of tendons and ligaments. It is a type of arthritis that affects the spine and may involve skin, intestine or eyes in certain cases. It is also known as spondyloarthritis or spondyloarthropathy. The disease is similar to rheumatoid arthritis, but the rheumatoid factor in the blood does not increase in case of spondyloarthritis. This disease causes joint inflammation, leading to back pain and rashes. If the lower vertebra back pain is ignored, normal functioning of the body is affected while also limiting mobility in severe cases. Pain in legs and arms is referred to as peripheral spondyloarthritis. It is often accompanied with inflammation and swelling around joints, which come and go.
A Squint, or strabismus is a medical condition in which the eyes do not align properly. They do not look in the same direction at the same time. The disorder occurs due to poor eye muscle control. Other reasons are, improper balance of eye muscles, faulty nerve signals to the eye muscles, and focusing faults (usually long sight). Due to these complications, eyeballs may converge or diverge, thus obstructing proper functioning of the eye. The disorder can affect at any age (adult or baby). A child may be born with a squint or develop the condition right after birth. In case, the child develops the condition 6-7 weeks after birth, it is necessary to consult a doctor (eye specialist) and get them tested. Children with squints may also have poor vision in the affected eye. The sooner the treatment and care starts, the better the results.
Well known as gastric cancer, stomach cancer is identified by the expansion of cancerous cells within the lining of the stomach. This cancer can metastasize to other parts of the body, including the liver, bones, lungs and lymph nodes. Different sections of the stomach cause different symptoms and hence different results. It takes many years for the growth of stomach cancer. According to global reports and research, stomach cancer is the fifth leading cause of cancer but now the rates have been falling worldwide.
In subdural hematoma, blood accumulates between the layers of the tissues that encompass the cerebrum. This causes bleeding between the dura (the peripheral layer) and the arachnoid (the following layer). The bleeding in a subdural hematoma happens under the skull and outside the cerebrum. The accumulation of blood often leads to high blood pressure which is dangerous for the patient.
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), is an inflammatory disease that occurs due to immunity disorder. Lupus is caused when body’s owns defense system attacks healthy tissues in many parts of the body. The symptoms vary from individual to individual. The disease passes through stages of severity with alternate periods of hard and mild symptoms. People suffering with SLE can lead a normal life with the help of treatments. The early symptoms may vary from fatigue to joint pain, and rashes with mild fever. The available treatments options are not definite cure but focus on improving the quality of life lead by any human. Lifestyle modifications with diet improvements and restriction from sunlight exposure are some important measures. In India alone the count for registered cases of the disease is 1 million per year.
Tachycardia is a type of arrhythmia, a disorder of the rhythm of the heart, in which the heartbeat is very fast even when you are at rest. It is absolutely normal for the heartbeat to rise up during physical activities and emotional upheavals. But if you have tachycardia, your heart beats faster than normal in the upper or lower chambers of the heart, or in both, even while at rest. There are many types of tachycardia. They are classified according to the origin and cause of the abnormality. Common types of tachycardia are atrial fibrillation, atrial flutter, supraventricular tachycardia, ventricular tachycardia and ventricular fibrillation. Atrial fibrillation is caused due to irregular electrical signals in the upper chambers or atria of the heart. Atrial flutter is caused due to irregular circuitry within the atria. Supraventricular tachycardia is usually congenital and caused by abnormal circuitry, creating a loop of signals that overlap each other. The origin of this is somewhere above the lower chambers or ventricles. Ventricular tachycardia originates in the ventricles and result in the ventricles being incompletely filled with blood during pumping, thereby reducing the efficiency of the heart. Ventricular fibrillation occurs when chaotic and rapid electrical impulses cause the ventricles to quiver, instead of pumping blood. This can be fatal if not treated on time, using an electric shock to the heart, also known as defibrillation.
Tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) is a congenital defect that hampers the normal flow of blood through the heart. This disease generally occurs in a baby whose heart does not develop properly while still in the womb. The defects generally affect the structure of the heart so much that they begin to cause oxygen-poor blood flow to the parts of the body. Infants who are suffering from tetralogy of Fallot have a tinge of blue in their skin colour and have an absolute restriction of blood flow from the right ventricle. The condition, tetralogy of Fallot is also known to be associated with chromosomal abnormalities. When the flow of blood towards the lungs is limited, the fusion of the ventricular septal defect and aortic paves way for the passage of oxygen-poor blood coming back to the right atrium and the right ventricle.
The tongue is divided into two parts. The front two-thirds of the tongue is known as the oral tongue and the remaining is known as the base tongue. Cancer in the oral tongue is a type of tongue cancer. Similar to other types of cancer, tongue cancer also has different stages. The earliest it is detected and treated, the easier it is to completely remove it. Squamous cell carcinoma is the most common type of tongue cancer. These skin-like flat cells cover the mouth lining, throat, larynx, nose, and thyroid. Any cancer that occurs in these cells is known as squamous cell carcinoma. There are several causes of cancer, and smoking and heavy alcohol consumption are the most common of all. The exact cause of most oral cancers is unknown, but lifestyle habits are considered to be the main cause. Sexually contracted Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a factor that can lead to tongue cancer.
The total anomalous pulmonary venous connection comprises of a birth malformation of flow of blood where the four pulmonary veins filter into the right atrium with or without the obstruction of pulmonary veins. Pulmonary and systemic blood of veins gets mixed together in the right atrium. The four veins that carry blood from lungs to the heart do not really attach themselves casually towards the left atrium, but instead to some wrong part of the heart. It is an uncommon defect of a congenital nature that represents 2% of congenital anomalies of the heart. The veins link themselves to the left atrium or the heart by means of an unusual connection.
Tourette syndrome is a problem of the nervous system that results in sudden and involuntary movements or sounds. These sudden movements or sounds are called tics and are different for different people. Tourette’s can be severe or mild, often with onset in childhood. As a child grows, the symptoms may disappear or reduce, and for some they completely go away. The basal ganglia are a part of the brain that is linked with Tourette syndrome. Any differences in this area of the brain can affect the nerve cells. The exact cause of the problem appearing in the brain is not known, but genetics play a vital role. People with a family history of Tourette's, OCD or ADHD are more likely to develop Tourette syndrome. The Tics can vary from slight movements such as blinking or twitching and be more severe such as shaking of the head or arms. Similarly, the sounds can be mild such as clearing the throat or sniffing and may be severe like shouting or yelling out words.
The tube that connects the mouth and nose to the lungs is called as the Trachea, and the air we breathe goes in and out of the lungs through it. Trachea is placed in front of the oesophagus and it carries the food down from the mouth. It is about 5 - 6 inches long and consists of fibrous tissue rings. Tracheal Cancer is known as the cancer of the windpipe. There are different kinds of Tracheal Cancer, and squamous cell carcinoma is the most common among them. This particular kind of cancer basically happens because of smoking, but the reasons for other kinds of Tracheal Cancer are still unknown.
Transposition of great arteries is regarded as a congenital birth defect in which the two main vessels that carry blood from the heart are transposed. The transposition of great arteries paves way for a situation where the blood with a low amount of oxygen courses through right atrium and right ventricle and is pumped out to aorta and the body, while the blood rich in oxygen returns from the lungs and courses through the left atrium and ventricle and is then sent back to the lungs through the pulmonary artery. Without an adequate supply of oxygen-rich blood, the body can't function properly and the child faces serious complications or death without treatment.
Brain dysfunction as a result of any kind of external mechanical force causes traumatic brain injury (TBI). A violent blow or jolt to the head or body is usually the main cause of TBI. In the case of an object entering the skull, such as a bullet, or a piece of the skull itself may also result in TBI. A severe traumatic brain injury can lead to serious problems like torn brain tissues, bruising, bleeding, and other physical damages to the brain. Mild TBI may result in milder and temporary dysfunction of the brain cells.
If a body part gets caught between two objects in motion or under the influence of a high magnitude force, the body parts could get severely injured in the accident owing to the squeeze and rubbing. These kinds of accidents are called crush injuries. Often, the sudden shock the injured person experiences during the injury, coupled with the physical injury results in excessive trauma. Usually, such traumatic crush injuries result in broken bones, bleeding, severe bruises, laceration and compartment syndrome. Laceration refers to deep cuts or gashes in the flesh or skin, whereas compartment syndrome refers to excessive buildup of pressure in the enclosed muscle space of a human body. During a compartment syndrome episode, the increased pressure prevents blood flow into the area, thereby depriving the parts of oxygen and nourishment.
Tricuspid atresia is defined as a congenital heart defect whereby there is a complete absence of the tricuspid valve. Therefore, there is an absence of right atrioventricular connection. This leads to a hypoplastic (undersized) or absent right ventricle. Irrespective of the gender, it occurs equally both in boys and girls. In a normal condition, the tricuspid valve is positioned on the right side of the heart, whereas in the babies affected with this disease, there is no tricuspid valve at all, and the right ventricle is small. The filtering away of blue blood is not any big problem until the baby with tricuspid atresia is inside the mother’s womb. The baby will find way to pass oxygen to the lungs, provided by the mother. But once the baby is born, the levels of oxygen are lower than usual, and the fingernails and lips of the baby begin to turn blue. It becomes quite difficult for the baby to create a pathway to carry oxygen to the lungs. The disease occurs in quite rare cases, affecting 3-5 in some 20,000 births.
The head consists of 12 pairs of cranial nerves. Amongst these are the Trigeminal nerves which allows a person to feel facial sensations. A disorder to any of the three nerve branches - Ophthalmic Branch, Mandibular Branch, and Maxillary Branch, results in intense facial pain and is termed as Trigeminal Neuralgia. Trigeminal Neuralgia affects the facial nerves and causes ongoing intense pain, from the forehead to the jaw. It is similar to the feeling of electric shock like pain. The pain could be on one side or both. In case, if it happens both sides, it is called as Bilateral Trigeminal Neuralgia. The causes for Trigeminal Neuralgia could be anything, from an irritation in the nerve to a pressing blood vessel. A stroke, accident, or a surgery could also injure the nerves, resulting in Trigeminal Neuralgia.
Stenosing Tenosynovitis, commonly called ‘Trigger finger’ is the painful condition in which one of your fingers gets stuck in a bent position. Your finger may straighten with a snap sound, like a trigger being pulled and released. It occurs when there is an inflammation in the tendons of the affected finger. Tendons are tough bands of tissue that connect the muscles and the bones. Tendons and muscles function together, for the fingers to bend or straighten. The inflammation narrows down the space within the sheath of the tendons. Therefore, the motion of the tendons gets restricted and creates a pop sound during movement. Trigger finger is commonly observed in people with occupations involving repetitive gripping action in the fingers. Also, the disorder is mostly observed in women and those with diabetes.
Truncus arteriosus(TA) is a congenital heart defect having acute complexities. This disease occurs barely in one out of every 10,000 births. It does not always occur by itself, but as component of some genetic disorder. In this condition of truncus arteriosus, only one vessel appears to connect the heart to the rest of the body organs, as opposed to the two separate vessels of blood. The truncus arteriosus is a heart defect that a child gets at the time of birth. It is when the baby is still in the stage of developing and the blood vessel emerging from his heart declines to part totally, leaving both the aorta and pulmonary artery in connection with each other. In a baby with truncus arteriosus, the mixed oxygen-rich and oxygen-poor blood flows to the whole body and the lungs, and as a consequence, the heart has to exert a bit in pumping the right amount of blood to all the parts of the body.
Tuberculosis (TB) is a serious infectious disease caused by the bacteria Mycobacterium tuberculosis. This bacterial infection affects human lungs by spreading quickly, and causing damage to other organs. It is an airborne disease, and spreads through the air and can infect people who live in close proximity to each other. Smoking and consumption of tobacco and alcohol increases the risk of developing the disease. The types of TB may be regarded in two categories: active disease or latent infection., Active TB is when the disease is actively producing symptoms and can be transmitted to other people, while latent disease is when the person is infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis bacteria, but the bacteria are not producing symptoms (usually due to the body's immune system suppressing the bacterial growth and spread) and have no TB bacteria in the sputum. They could, however, become active at any time. As per a report, TB mostly affects women aged 15 to 44 years and an average of nine million people across the globe every year.
A sore development on the lining of the stomach or small intestine is called ulcer. It is formed when stomach acid damages the line of the digestive tract. Its treatment includes medication to reduce the stomach acid production. If bacteria are the actual cause of ulcer, it must be treated with antibiotics. Medical treatment usually takes 4-8 weeks to suppress the acid and heal the ulcer. It is also known as the gastric ulcer. It may be caused when the lining of the guts are damaged, and tissues underlying are exposed. Peptic ulcers are breaks in the protective lining of the duodenum or the stomach. This can be treated with antibiotics and a reduction in the amount of acid produced by the stomach. The dangers associated with peptic ulcers are anaemia, profuse bleeding, and stomach cancer. Ulcer should not be neglected, and treated immediately. Ulcer is common disease, and 1 in 10 people in our country is suffering from it. The major cause is the stress of modern life and high consumption of fast food.
Ulcerative colitis is an inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). IBD includes many diseases that cause harm to the gastrointestinal tract. Ulcerative colitis happens when the coating of your rectum, colon, or both inflames. This inflammation produces little bruises called ulcers on the coating of your colon. It mostly starts in the rectum and spreads upward. It can include your whole colon. The inflammation makes your bowel to move its substance quickly and empty as often as possible. As cells on the surface of the covering of your bowel die, ulcers are formed. The ulcers may lead to a release of pus and mucus and bleeding. While this disease can occur in individuals of all ages, the vast majority are analyzed to be between the ages of 15 and 35. After the age of 50, another small increase in determination for this disease is seen, generally in men.
The urethra is a canal in placental mammals that links the urinary bladder to the meatus for the elimination of fluids from the body. Urethral stricture is the narrowing of the urethra caused by injuries, sexual infection and instrumention. A urethral stricture happens when scarring narrows the tube that transports urine out of your body. This condition limits the flow of urine from the bladder and cause a range of medical problems in the urinary tract. Urethral stricture is more common in males than in females because males have a longer urethra.
The loss of control over your bladder is called urinary incontinence in medical terms. This is a common and embarrassing problem that might occur due to sudden and strong urgency to urinate. The condition affects your daily activities and can be embarrassing in public places. Therefore, if you have urinary incontinence, approach ythe doctor immediately to seek relief from simple measures like lifestyle changes or medication.
A urinary tract infection (UTI) is an infection that occurs in any part of the urinary system which includes the kidneys, ureters, bladder and urethra. In most cases, these infections are seen in the lower urinary tract i.e. the bladder and the urethra. If left untreated, UTI can spread to the kidneys and cause serious damage.
Uveitis is known as the inflammation of the uvea. Uvea is the middle layer of the tissue present in the eyewall. The main cause of uveitis may be an autoimmune disease or an infection. Uveitis can lead to permanent vision loss and requires proper medical attention.
Many women face abnormal or unexpected spotting between the periods or regular menstrual cycles. This spotting or heavy bleeding is termed as vaginal bleeding. Vaginal bleeding is described as a bleeding over and apart from normal menstruation. This bleeding may include spotting which is visible or noticed as blood spots on a tissue paper after using washroom, or heavy periods where tampons need to be used. Menstrual cycle or vaginal bleeding occurs every month with an average cycle of 21 to 35 days. It is due to the uterus shedding its lining marking at the beginning of a reproductive cycle. The normal periods last for just a few days, and the flow can vary from person to person.
Varicose veins, also known as Varicosities or Varicoses, happens when any vein (generally in the leg) abnormally swells up. The main cause of Varicose Veins is high blood pressure in the veins which weakens the veins and leads to the collection of blood in the veins.
Ventricular septal defect refers to that hole in the wall (also known as septum) that separates the ventricles of the heart. This congenital disorder can also cause pulmonary hypertension. If the defect is of a minor form, it will not need any treatment but if it is major, surgery and medical management might be needed to correct the defect. This condition is a defect of the heart that is there from the time of birth, where the hole in the wall, namely septum comes to separate the two bottom chambers of the heart, also known as the ventricular septum. The cause of the defect among many children still remain unknown. When the fetus begins to grow, a barrier develops to part the two ventricles. A hole remains there if the wall does not develop properly. This defect is among one of the most recurrent congenital defects of the heart happening to 0.1 to 0.4 % of total live births and making up only about 20-30% lesions of the heart.
Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a rare disease, which is characterized by irregular bouts of fever, substantial weight loss, swelling of the spleen and liver, and anaemia (which may be serious). It is commonly known as kala-azar. It usually occurs a month or two after being bitten by a sand fly. Almost 500,000 new cases occur each year around the world. The clinical forms of this disease can be treated with the pentavalent antimonial compounds.
The voice box tumours or laryngeal cancer is the cancer of the voice box located in the throat. Voice Box, also called larynx is located just above the point where the throat divides into two, trachea (windpipe), Esophagus (food pipe). The Larynx has two vocal cords which are the muscle bands. The front cartilage or muscle band is called the Adam’s apple. It can be felt by our hands in the throat as a lump. The Larynx has three main parts, supraglottis – area above vocal cords, glottis – area containing vocal cords, subglottis – area just below the vocal cords. Voice box cancers are squamous, and they start in the thin flat cell lining of the larynx. The major reason of voice box tumour is smoking. Along with heavy alcohol consumption, smoking causes a great increase in the risk of voice box cancer.
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